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DBMS > Google Cloud Spanner vs. Microsoft SQL Server vs. PostgreSQL

System Properties Comparison Google Cloud Spanner vs. Microsoft SQL Server vs. PostgreSQL

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Editorial information provided by DB-Engines
NameGoogle Cloud Spanner  Xexclude from comparisonMicrosoft SQL Server  Xexclude from comparisonPostgreSQL  Xexclude from comparison
DescriptionA horizontally scalable, globally consistent, relational database service. It is the externalization of the core Google database that runs the biggest aspects of Google, like Ads and Google Play.Microsofts relational DBMSWidely used open source RDBMS infoDeveloped as objectoriented DBMS (Postgres), gradually enhanced with 'standards' like SQL
Primary database modelRelational DBMSRelational DBMSRelational DBMS infowith object oriented extensions, e.g.: user defined types/functions and inheritance. Handling of key/value pairs with hstore module.
Secondary database modelsDocument store
Graph DBMS
Document store
DB-Engines Ranking infomeasures the popularity of database management systemsranking trend
Trend Chart
Score2.25
Rank#108  Overall
#52  Relational DBMS
Score1067.31
Rank#3  Overall
#3  Relational DBMS
Score522.99
Rank#4  Overall
#4  Relational DBMS
Websitecloud.google.com/­spannerwww.microsoft.com/­en-us/­sql-serverwww.postgresql.org
Technical documentationcloud.google.com/­spanner/­docsdocs.microsoft.com/­en-ie/­sql/­sql-server/­sql-server-technical-documentationwww.postgresql.org/­docs/­manuals
DeveloperGoogleMicrosoftPostgreSQL Global Development Group infowww.postgresql.org/­developer
Initial release201719891989 info1989: Postgres, 1996: PostgreSQL
Current releaseSQL Server 2019, November 201912.3, May 2020
License infoCommercial or Open Sourcecommercialcommercial inforestricted free version is availableOpen Source infoBSD
Cloud-based only infoOnly available as a cloud serviceyesnono
DBaaS offerings (sponsored links) infoDatabase as a Service

Providers of DBaaS offerings, please contact us to be listed.
  • Azure Database for PostgreSQL: A fully managed, scalable PostgreSQL relational database with high availability and security built in at no extra cost
  • ScaleGrid: Fully managed PostgreSQL hosting with high availability, dedicated servers, and superuser control on the #1 multi-cloud Amazon RDS alternative.
Implementation languageC++C
Server operating systemshostedLinux
Windows
FreeBSD
HP-UX
Linux
NetBSD
OpenBSD
OS X
Solaris
Unix
Windows
Data schemeyesyesyes
Typing infopredefined data types such as float or dateyesyesyes
XML support infoSome form of processing data in XML format, e.g. support for XML data structures, and/or support for XPath, XQuery or XSLT.noyesyes infospecific XML-type available, but no XML query functionality.
Secondary indexesyesyesyes
SQL infoSupport of SQLyes infoQuery statements complying to ANSI 2011yesyes infostandard with numerous extensions
APIs and other access methodsgRPC (using protocol buffers) API
JDBC infoAt present, JDBC supports read-only queries. No support for DDL or DML statements.
RESTful HTTP API
ADO.NET
JDBC
ODBC
OLE DB
Tabular Data Stream (TDS)
ADO.NET
JDBC
native C library
ODBC
streaming API for large objects
Supported programming languagesGo
Java
JavaScript (Node.js)
Python
C#
C++
Delphi
Go
Java
JavaScript (Node.js)
PHP
Python
R
Ruby
Visual Basic
.Net
C
C++
Delphi
Java infoJDBC
JavaScript (Node.js)
Perl
PHP
Python
Tcl
Server-side scripts infoStored proceduresnoTransact SQL, .NET languages, R, Python and (with SQL Server 2019) Javauser defined functions inforealized in proprietary language PL/pgSQL or with common languages like Perl, Python, Tcl etc.
Triggersnoyesyes
Partitioning methods infoMethods for storing different data on different nodesShardingtables can be distributed across several files (horizontal partitioning); sharding through federationpartitioning by range, list and (since PostgreSQL 11) by hash
Replication methods infoMethods for redundantly storing data on multiple nodesMaster-Master replication with 3 replicas for regional instances.yes, but depending on the SQL-Server EditionMaster-slave replication infoother methods possible by using 3rd party extensions
MapReduce infoOffers an API for user-defined Map/Reduce methodsyes infousing Google Cloud Dataflownono
Consistency concepts infoMethods to ensure consistency in a distributed systemImmediate ConsistencyImmediate ConsistencyImmediate Consistency
Foreign keys infoReferential integrityyes infoby using interleaved tables, this features focuses more on performance improvements than on referential integrityyesyes
Transaction concepts infoSupport to ensure data integrity after non-atomic manipulations of dataACID infoStrict serializable isolationACIDACID
Concurrency infoSupport for concurrent manipulation of datayesyesyes
Durability infoSupport for making data persistentyesyesyes
In-memory capabilities infoIs there an option to define some or all structures to be held in-memory only.noyesno
User concepts infoAccess controlAccess rights for users, groups and roles based on Google Cloud Identity and Access Management (IAM)fine grained access rights according to SQL-standardfine grained access rights according to SQL-standard

More information provided by the system vendor

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More resources
Google Cloud SpannerMicrosoft SQL ServerPostgreSQL
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Conferences and events

PostgreSQL Online Trainings
Online Training Courses, 4 May 2020 - 11 December 2020

Recent citations in the news

Google Releases Spanner Emulator
1 June 2020, iProgrammer

Google Updates Cloud Spanner with New Features: Backup on Demand, Local Emulator, and More
1 May 2020, InfoQ.com

Relational Database Comparison - Alibaba, Amazon, Google, IBM and Microsoft - Web Hosting | Cloud Computing | Datacenter | Domain News
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Google lays out HarbourBridge to tempt PostgreSQL users onto Cloud Spanner • DEVCLASS
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28 May 2020, Continuity Central

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PostgreSQL: Businesses choose open source for digital transformation
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Common administrator responsibilities on Amazon RDS and Amazon Aurora for PostgreSQL databases
18 May 2020, idk.dev

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Job opportunities

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