DBMS > Google Cloud Spanner vs. Microsoft Azure Table Storage vs. PostgreSQL vs. SAP SQL Anywhere
System Properties Comparison Google Cloud Spanner vs. Microsoft Azure Table Storage vs. PostgreSQL vs. SAP SQL Anywhere
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|Editorial information provided by DB-Engines|
|Name||Google Cloud Spanner Xexclude from comparison||Microsoft Azure Table Storage Xexclude from comparison||PostgreSQL Xexclude from comparison||SAP SQL Anywhere formerly called Adaptive Server Anywhere Xexclude from comparison|
|Description||A horizontally scalable, globally consistent, relational database service. It is the externalization of the core Google database that runs the biggest aspects of Google, like Ads and Google Play.||A Wide Column Store for rapid development using massive semi-structured datasets||Widely used open source RDBMS Developed as objectoriented DBMS (Postgres), gradually enhanced with 'standards' like SQL||RDBMS database and synchronization technologies for server, desktop, remote office, and mobile environments|
|Primary database model||Relational DBMS||Wide column store||Relational DBMS with object oriented extensions, e.g.: user defined types/functions and inheritance. Handling of key/value pairs with hstore module.||Relational DBMS|
|Secondary database models||Document store|
|Developer||Microsoft||PostgreSQL Global Development Group www.postgresql.org/developer||SAP formerly Sybase|
|Initial release||2017||2012||1989 1989: Postgres, 1996: PostgreSQL||1992|
|Current release||15.1, November 2022||17, July 2015|
|License Commercial or Open Source||commercial||commercial||Open Source BSD||commercial|
|Cloud-based only Only available as a cloud service||yes||yes||no||no|
|DBaaS offerings (sponsored links) Database as a Service|
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|Server operating systems||hosted||hosted||FreeBSD|
|Typing predefined data types such as float or date||yes||yes||yes||yes|
|XML support Some form of processing data in XML format, e.g. support for XML data structures, and/or support for XPath, XQuery or XSLT.||no||no||yes specific XML-type available, but no XML query functionality.||yes|
|SQL Support of SQL||yes Query statements complying to ANSI 2011||no||yes standard with numerous extensions||yes|
|APIs and other access methods||gRPC (using protocol buffers) API|
JDBC At present, JDBC supports read-only queries. No support for DDL or DML statements.
RESTful HTTP API
|RESTful HTTP API||ADO.NET|
native C library
streaming API for large objects
|Supported programming languages||Go|
|Server-side scripts Stored procedures||no||no||user defined functions realized in proprietary language PL/pgSQL or with common languages like Perl, Python, Tcl etc.||yes, in C/C++, Java, .Net or Perl|
|Partitioning methods Methods for storing different data on different nodes||Sharding||Sharding Implicit feature of the cloud service||partitioning by range, list and (since PostgreSQL 11) by hash||none|
|Replication methods Methods for redundantly storing data on multiple nodes||Multi-source replication with 3 replicas for regional instances.||yes implicit feature of the cloud service. Replication either local, cross-facility or geo-redundant.||Source-replica replication other methods possible by using 3rd party extensions||Source-replica replication Database mirroring|
|MapReduce Offers an API for user-defined Map/Reduce methods||yes using Google Cloud Dataflow||no||no||no|
|Consistency concepts Methods to ensure consistency in a distributed system||Immediate Consistency||Immediate Consistency||Immediate Consistency||Immediate Consistency|
|Foreign keys Referential integrity||yes by using interleaved tables, this features focuses more on performance improvements than on referential integrity||no||yes||yes|
|Transaction concepts Support to ensure data integrity after non-atomic manipulations of data||ACID Strict serializable isolation||optimistic locking||ACID||ACID|
|Concurrency Support for concurrent manipulation of data||yes||yes||yes||yes|
|Durability Support for making data persistent||yes||yes||yes||yes|
|In-memory capabilities Is there an option to define some or all structures to be held in-memory only.||no||no||no||yes|
|User concepts Access control||Access rights for users, groups and roles based on Google Cloud Identity and Access Management (IAM)||Access rights based on private key authentication or shared access signatures||fine grained access rights according to SQL-standard||fine grained access rights according to SQL-standard|
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|Google Cloud Spanner||Microsoft Azure Table Storage||PostgreSQL||SAP SQL Anywhere formerly called Adaptive Server Anywhere|
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