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DBMS > Google Cloud Spanner vs. Microsoft Azure Cosmos DB vs. Microsoft Azure SQL Database vs. Stardog

System Properties Comparison Google Cloud Spanner vs. Microsoft Azure Cosmos DB vs. Microsoft Azure SQL Database vs. Stardog

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Editorial information provided by DB-Engines
NameGoogle Cloud Spanner  Xexclude from comparisonMicrosoft Azure Cosmos DB infoformer name was Azure DocumentDB  Xexclude from comparisonMicrosoft Azure SQL Database infoformerly SQL Azure  Xexclude from comparisonStardog  Xexclude from comparison
DescriptionA horizontally scalable, globally consistent, relational database service. It is the externalization of the core Google database that runs the biggest aspects of Google, like Ads and Google Play.Globally distributed, horizontally scalable, multi-model database serviceDatabase as a Service offering with high compatibility to Microsoft SQL ServerEnterprise Knowledge Graph platform and graph DBMS with high availability, high performance reasoning, and virtualization
Primary database modelRelational DBMSDocument store
Graph DBMS
Key-value store
Wide column store
Relational DBMSGraph DBMS
RDF store
Secondary database modelsSpatial DBMSDocument store
Graph DBMS
Spatial DBMS
DB-Engines Ranking infomeasures the popularity of database management systemsranking trend
Trend Chart
Score2.85
Rank#99  Overall
#50  Relational DBMS
Score36.47
Rank#25  Overall
#3  Document stores
#2  Graph DBMS
#3  Key-value stores
#3  Wide column stores
Score74.79
Rank#15  Overall
#10  Relational DBMS
Score1.73
Rank#129  Overall
#10  Graph DBMS
#6  RDF stores
Websitecloud.google.com/­spannerazure.microsoft.com/­services/­cosmos-dbazure.microsoft.com/­en-us/­services/­sql-databasewww.stardog.com
Technical documentationcloud.google.com/­spanner/­docsdocs.microsoft.com/­azure/­cosmos-dbdocs.microsoft.com/­en-us/­azure/­azure-sqldocs.stardog.com
DeveloperGoogleMicrosoftMicrosoftStardog-Union
Initial release2017201420102010
Current releaseV127.3.0, May 2020
License infoCommercial or Open Sourcecommercialcommercialcommercialcommercial info60-day fully-featured trial license; 1-year fully-featured non-commercial use license for academics/students
Cloud-based only infoOnly available as a cloud serviceyesyesyesno
DBaaS offerings (sponsored links) infoDatabase as a Service

Providers of DBaaS offerings, please contact us to be listed.
Implementation languageC++Java
Server operating systemshostedhostedhostedLinux
macOS
Windows
Data schemeyesschema-freeyesschema-free and OWL/RDFS-schema support
Typing infopredefined data types such as float or dateyesyes infoJSON typesyesyes
XML support infoSome form of processing data in XML format, e.g. support for XML data structures, and/or support for XPath, XQuery or XSLT.noyesno infoImport/export of XML data possible
Secondary indexesyesyes infoAll properties auto-indexed by defaultyesyes infosupports real-time indexing in full-text and geospatial
SQL infoSupport of SQLyes infoQuery statements complying to ANSI 2011SQL-like query languageyesYes, compatible with all major SQL variants through dedicated BI/SQL Server
APIs and other access methodsgRPC (using protocol buffers) API
JDBC infoAt present, JDBC supports read-only queries. No support for DDL or DML statements.
RESTful HTTP API
DocumentDB API
Graph API (Gremlin)
MongoDB API
RESTful HTTP API
Table API
ADO.NET
JDBC
ODBC
GraphQL query language
HTTP API
Jena RDF API
OWL
RDF4J API
Sesame REST HTTP Protocol
SNARL
SPARQL
Spring Data
Stardog Studio
TinkerPop 3
Supported programming languagesGo
Java
JavaScript (Node.js)
Python
.Net
C#
Java
JavaScript
JavaScript (Node.js)
MongoDB client drivers written for various programming languages
Python
.Net
C#
Java
JavaScript (Node.js)
PHP
Python
Ruby
.Net
Clojure
Groovy
Java
JavaScript
Python
Ruby
Server-side scripts infoStored proceduresnoJavaScriptTransact SQLuser defined functions and aggregates, HTTP Server extensions in Java
TriggersnoJavaScriptyesyes infovia event handlers
Partitioning methods infoMethods for storing different data on different nodesShardingSharding infoImplicit feature of the cloud servicenone
Replication methods infoMethods for redundantly storing data on multiple nodesMulti-source replication with 3 replicas for regional instances.yes infoImplicit feature of the cloud serviceyes, with always 3 replicas availableMulti-source replication in HA-Cluster
MapReduce infoOffers an API for user-defined Map/Reduce methodsyes infousing Google Cloud Dataflowwith Hadoop integration infoIntegration with Hadoop/HDInsight on Azure*nono
Consistency concepts infoMethods to ensure consistency in a distributed systemImmediate ConsistencyBounded Staleness
Consistent Prefix
Eventual Consistency
Immediate Consistency infoConsistency level configurable on request level
Session Consistency
Immediate ConsistencyImmediate Consistency in HA-Cluster
Foreign keys infoReferential integrityyes infoby using interleaved tables, this features focuses more on performance improvements than on referential integritynoyesyes inforelationships in graphs
Transaction concepts infoSupport to ensure data integrity after non-atomic manipulations of dataACID infoStrict serializable isolationMulti-item ACID transactions with snapshot isolation within a partitionACIDACID
Concurrency infoSupport for concurrent manipulation of datayesyesyesyes
Durability infoSupport for making data persistentyesyesyesyes
In-memory capabilities infoIs there an option to define some or all structures to be held in-memory only.noyes
User concepts infoAccess controlAccess rights for users, groups and roles based on Google Cloud Identity and Access Management (IAM)Access rights can be defined down to the item levelfine grained access rights according to SQL-standardAccess rights for users and roles
More information provided by the system vendor
Google Cloud SpannerMicrosoft Azure Cosmos DB infoformer name was Azure DocumentDBMicrosoft Azure SQL Database infoformerly SQL AzureStardog
Specific characteristicsStardog is an Enterprise Knowledge Graph platform, uniquely combining graph storage...
» more
Competitive advantagesStardog provides a full featureset to aid in data integration for your complex data....
» more
Typical application scenariosStardog is frequently used for: Anti-money laundering & fraud monitoring Customer...
» more
Key customersBosch, Dow Jones, Elsevier, Ericsson, Morgan Stanley, NASA, NIH, Nokia, Salesforce,...
» more
Market metricsStardog's technology is based on ground-breaking research by our founders cited 10,000+...
» more
Licensing and pricing modelsA fully-featured 60-day Trial license is available for those testing Stardog; contact...
» more

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More resources
Google Cloud SpannerMicrosoft Azure Cosmos DB infoformer name was Azure DocumentDBMicrosoft Azure SQL Database infoformerly SQL AzureStardog
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