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DBMS > Google Cloud Spanner vs. H2 vs. PostgreSQL

System Properties Comparison Google Cloud Spanner vs. H2 vs. PostgreSQL

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Editorial information provided by DB-Engines
NameGoogle Cloud Spanner  Xexclude from comparisonH2  Xexclude from comparisonPostgreSQL  Xexclude from comparison
DescriptionA horizontally scalable, globally consistent, relational database service. It is the externalization of the core Google database that runs the biggest aspects of Google, like Ads and Google Play.Full-featured RDBMS with a small footprint, either embedded into a Java application or used as a database server.Widely used open source RDBMS infoDeveloped as objectoriented DBMS (Postgres), gradually enhanced with 'standards' like SQL
Primary database modelRelational DBMSRelational DBMSRelational DBMS infowith object oriented extensions, e.g.: user defined types/functions and inheritance. Handling of key/value pairs with hstore module.
Secondary database modelsSpatial DBMSDocument store
Spatial DBMS
DB-Engines Ranking infomeasures the popularity of database management systemsranking trend
Trend Chart
Score3.19
Rank#95  Overall
#50  Relational DBMS
Score9.69
Rank#48  Overall
#30  Relational DBMS
Score577.50
Rank#4  Overall
#4  Relational DBMS
Websitecloud.google.com/­spannerwww.h2database.comwww.postgresql.org
Technical documentationcloud.google.com/­spanner/­docswww.h2database.com/­html/­main.htmlwww.postgresql.org/­docs
DeveloperGoogleThomas MuellerPostgreSQL Global Development Group infowww.postgresql.org/­developer
Initial release201720051989 info1989: Postgres, 1996: PostgreSQL
Current release1.4.200, October 201913.4, August 2021
License infoCommercial or Open SourcecommercialOpen Source infodual-licence (Mozilla public license, Eclipse public license)Open Source infoBSD
Cloud-based only infoOnly available as a cloud serviceyesnono
DBaaS offerings (sponsored links) infoDatabase as a Service

Providers of DBaaS offerings, please contact us to be listed.
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Implementation languageJavaC
Server operating systemshostedAll OS with a Java VMFreeBSD
HP-UX
Linux
NetBSD
OpenBSD
OS X
Solaris
Unix
Windows
Data schemeyesyesyes
Typing infopredefined data types such as float or dateyesyesyes
XML support infoSome form of processing data in XML format, e.g. support for XML data structures, and/or support for XPath, XQuery or XSLT.nonoyes infospecific XML-type available, but no XML query functionality.
Secondary indexesyesyesyes
SQL infoSupport of SQLyes infoQuery statements complying to ANSI 2011yesyes infostandard with numerous extensions
APIs and other access methodsgRPC (using protocol buffers) API
JDBC infoAt present, JDBC supports read-only queries. No support for DDL or DML statements.
RESTful HTTP API
JDBC
ODBC
ADO.NET
JDBC
native C library
ODBC
streaming API for large objects
Supported programming languagesGo
Java
JavaScript (Node.js)
Python
Java.Net
C
C++
Delphi
Java infoJDBC
JavaScript (Node.js)
Perl
PHP
Python
Tcl
Server-side scripts infoStored proceduresnoJava Stored Procedures and User-Defined Functionsuser defined functions inforealized in proprietary language PL/pgSQL or with common languages like Perl, Python, Tcl etc.
Triggersnoyesyes
Partitioning methods infoMethods for storing different data on different nodesShardingnonepartitioning by range, list and (since PostgreSQL 11) by hash
Replication methods infoMethods for redundantly storing data on multiple nodesMulti-source replication with 3 replicas for regional instances.With clustering: 2 database servers on different computers operate on identical copies of a databaseSource-replica replication infoother methods possible by using 3rd party extensions
MapReduce infoOffers an API for user-defined Map/Reduce methodsyes infousing Google Cloud Dataflownono
Consistency concepts infoMethods to ensure consistency in a distributed systemImmediate ConsistencyImmediate ConsistencyImmediate Consistency
Foreign keys infoReferential integrityyes infoby using interleaved tables, this features focuses more on performance improvements than on referential integrityyesyes
Transaction concepts infoSupport to ensure data integrity after non-atomic manipulations of dataACID infoStrict serializable isolationACIDACID
Concurrency infoSupport for concurrent manipulation of datayesyes, multi-version concurrency control (MVCC)yes
Durability infoSupport for making data persistentyesyesyes
In-memory capabilities infoIs there an option to define some or all structures to be held in-memory only.noyesno
User concepts infoAccess controlAccess rights for users, groups and roles based on Google Cloud Identity and Access Management (IAM)fine grained access rights according to SQL-standardfine grained access rights according to SQL-standard

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More resources
Google Cloud SpannerH2PostgreSQL
DB-Engines blog posts

The Inexorable Rise of PostgreSQL
24 September 2021,  Matt Yonkovit, Percona (sponsor) 

PostgreSQL is the DBMS of the Year 2020
4 January 2021, Paul Andlinger, Matthias Gelbmann

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Recent citations in the news

Google plays catch-up with JSON support for distributed RDBMS Spanner
8 September 2021, The Register

One on One with Google Cloud Product Director Irina Farooq
16 September 2021, Datanami

Google Cloud Opens New Canadian Cloud Region In Toronto
14 September 2021, CRN

Google Bolsters Cloud Spanner with Point-in-Time Recovery
6 April 2021, InfoQ.com

DataStax extends Astra DB serverless to go multiregion
15 September 2021, ZDNet

provided by Google News

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20 September 2021, Index-Journal

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16 September 2021, insideBIGDATA

Amazon Aurora Supports PostgreSQL 13
5 September 2021, InfoQ.com

Instaclustr Adds PostgreSQL to Managed Platform in Public Preview
14 September 2021, Yahoo Finance

Crunchy Data provides trusted PostgreSQL containers in partnership with DoD
21 September 2021, Geospatial World

provided by Google News

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