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DBMS > Google Cloud Datastore vs. Neo4j vs. Virtuoso

System Properties Comparison Google Cloud Datastore vs. Neo4j vs. Virtuoso

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Editorial information provided by DB-Engines
NameGoogle Cloud Datastore  Xexclude from comparisonNeo4j  Xexclude from comparisonVirtuoso  Xexclude from comparison
DescriptionAutomatically scaling NoSQL Database as a Service (DBaaS) on the Google Cloud PlatformOpen source graph databaseVirtuoso is a multi-model hybrid-RDBMS that supports management of data represented as relational tables and/or property graphs
Primary database modelDocument storeGraph DBMSGraph DBMS
Native XML DBMS
Relational DBMS
RDF store
Search engine
Secondary database modelsDocument store
DB-Engines Ranking infomeasures the popularity of database management systemsranking trend
Trend Chart
Score5.21
Rank#61  Overall
#11  Document stores
Score50.53
Rank#22  Overall
#1  Graph DBMS
Score2.63
Rank#97  Overall
#5  Graph DBMS
#3  Native XML DBMS
#47  Relational DBMS
#2  RDF stores
#11  Search engines
Websitecloud.google.com/­datastoreneo4j.comvirtuoso.openlinksw.com
Technical documentationcloud.google.com/­datastore/­docsneo4j.com/­docsdocs.openlinksw.com/­virtuoso
DeveloperGoogleNeo4j, Inc.OpenLink Software
Initial release200820071998
Current release3.5.8, July 20198.3, May 2019
License infoCommercial or Open SourcecommercialOpen Source infoGPL version3, commercial licenses availableOpen Source infoGPLv2, extended commercial license available
Cloud-based only infoOnly available as a cloud serviceyesnono
DBaaS offerings (sponsored links) infoDatabase as a Service

Providers of DBaaS offerings, please contact us to be listed.
Neo4j Aura: The simplest way to run Neo4j in the cloud
Implementation languageJava, ScalaC
Server operating systemshostedLinux infoCan also be used server-less as embedded Java database.
OS X
Solaris
Windows
AIX
FreeBSD
HP-UX
Linux
OS X
Solaris
Windows
Data schemeschema-freeschema-free and schema-optionalyes infoSQL - Standard relational schema
RDF - Quad (S, P, O, G) or Triple (S, P, O)
XML - DTD, XML Schema
DAV - freeform filesystem objects, plus User Defined Types a/k/a Dynamic Extension Type
Typing infopredefined data types such as float or dateyes, details hereyesyes
XML support infoSome form of processing data in XML format, e.g. support for XML data structures, and/or support for XPath, XQuery or XSLT.noyes
Secondary indexesyesyes infopluggable indexing subsystem, by default Apache Luceneyes
SQL infoSupport of SQLSQL-like query language (GQL)noyes infoSQL-92, SQL-200x, SQL-3, SQLX
APIs and other access methodsgRPC (using protocol buffers) API
RESTful HTTP/JSON API
Bolt protocol
Cypher query language
Java API
Neo4j-OGM infoObject Graph Mapper
RESTful HTTP API
Spring Data Neo4j
TinkerPop 3
ADO.NET
GeoSPARQL
HTTP API
JDBC
Jena RDF API
ODBC
OLE DB
RDF4J API
RESTful HTTP API
Sesame REST HTTP Protocol
SOAP webservices
SPARQL 1.1
WebDAV
XPath
XQuery
XSLT
Supported programming languages.Net
Go
Java
JavaScript (Node.js)
PHP
Python
Ruby
.Net
Clojure
Elixir
Go
Groovy
Haskell
Java
JavaScript
Perl
PHP
Python
Ruby
Scala
.Net
C
C#
C++
Java
JavaScript
Perl
PHP
Python
Ruby
Visual Basic
Server-side scripts infoStored proceduresusing Google App Engineyes infoUser defined Procedures and Functionsyes infoVirtuoso PL
TriggersCallbacks using the Google Apps Engineyes infovia event handleryes
Partitioning methods infoMethods for storing different data on different nodesShardingnoneyes
Replication methods infoMethods for redundantly storing data on multiple nodesMulti-Master replication using PaxosCausal Clustering using Raft protocol infoavailable in in Enterprise Version onlyChain, star, and bi-directional replication
Master-master replication
Master-slave replication
MapReduce infoOffers an API for user-defined Map/Reduce methodsyes infousing Google Cloud Dataflownoyes
Consistency concepts infoMethods to ensure consistency in a distributed systemImmediate Consistency or Eventual Consistency depending on type of query and configuration infoStrong Consistency is default for entity lookups and queries within an Entity Group (but can instead be made eventually consistent). Other queries are always eventual consistent.Causal and Eventual Consistency configurable in Causal Cluster setup
Immediate Consistency in stand-alone mode
Immediate Consistency
Foreign keys infoReferential integrityyes infovia ReferenceProperties or Ancestor pathsyes infoRelationships in graphsyes
Transaction concepts infoSupport to ensure data integrity after non-atomic manipulations of dataACID infoSerializable Isolation within Transactions, Read Committed outside of TransactionsACIDACID
Concurrency infoSupport for concurrent manipulation of datayesyesyes
Durability infoSupport for making data persistentyesyesyes
In-memory capabilities infoIs there an option to define some or all structures to be held in-memory only.noyes
User concepts infoAccess controlAccess rights for users, groups and roles based on Google Cloud Identity and Access Management (IAM)Users, roles and permissions. Pluggable authentication with supported standards (LDAP, Active Directory, Kerberos)Fine-grained Attribute-Based Access Control (ABAC) in addition to typical coarse-grained Role-Based Access Control (RBAC) according to SQL-standard. Pluggable authentication with supported standards (LDAP, Active Directory, Kerberos)
More information provided by the system vendor
Google Cloud DatastoreNeo4jVirtuoso
Specific characteristicsNeo4j is a native graph database platform that is built to store, query, analyze...
» more
Virtuoso is a modern multi-model RDBMS for managing data represented as tabular relations...
» more
Competitive advantagesNeo4j database is the only transactional database that combines everything you need...
» more
Performance & Scale — as exemplified by DBpedia and the LOD Cloud it spawned, i.e.,...
» more
Typical application scenariosReal-Time Recommendations Master Data Management Identity and Access Management Network...
» more
Used for — Analytics/BI Conceptual Data Virtualization Enterprise Knowledge Graphs...
» more
Key customersOver 300 commercial customers and over 750 startups use Neo4j. Flagship customers...
» more
Broad use across enterprises and governments including — European Union (EU) US Government...
» more
Market metricsNeo4j boasts the world's largest graph database ecosystem with more than a 15 million...
» more
Largest installed-base ​of Multi-Model RDBMS for AI-friendly Knowledge Graphs Platform...
» more
Licensing and pricing modelsGPL v3 license that can be used all the places where you might use MySQL. Neo4j Commercial...
» more
Available in both Commercial Enterprise and Open Source (GPL v2) Editions Feature...
» more
News

Fullstack GraphQL with Neo4j
13 November 2019

Real Examples of Why We Need Context for Responsible AI
12 November 2019

This Week in Neo4j – Neo4j Aura is Here, Graph Embeddings, Graph Modeling: All about relationships, Exploring Structural Balance
9 November 2019

Capturing Relationships: 5-Minute Interview with Forrest Swope
8 November 2019

Introducing Neo4j Aura: A New Graph Database as a Service
6 November 2019

We invite representatives of system vendors to contact us for updating and extending the system information,
and for displaying vendor-provided information such as key customers, competitive advantages and market metrics.

Related products and services

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More resources
Google Cloud DatastoreNeo4jVirtuoso
DB-Engines blog posts

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12 June 2019, Amy Hodler & Mark Needham, Neo4j (guest author)

MySQL, PostgreSQL and Redis are the winners of the March ranking
2 March 2016, Paul Andlinger

The openCypher Project: Help Shape the SQL for Graphs
22 December 2015, Emil Eifrem (guest author)

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Conferences and events

GraphConnect 2020
New York, USA, 20-22 April 2020

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