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DBMS > Google Cloud Datastore vs. Microsoft SQL Server vs. PostgreSQL vs. Stardog vs. TinkerGraph

System Properties Comparison Google Cloud Datastore vs. Microsoft SQL Server vs. PostgreSQL vs. Stardog vs. TinkerGraph

Editorial information provided by DB-Engines
NameGoogle Cloud Datastore  Xexclude from comparisonMicrosoft SQL Server  Xexclude from comparisonPostgreSQL  Xexclude from comparisonStardog  Xexclude from comparisonTinkerGraph  Xexclude from comparison
DescriptionAutomatically scaling NoSQL Database as a Service (DBaaS) on the Google Cloud PlatformMicrosofts relational DBMSWidely used open source RDBMS infoDeveloped as objectoriented DBMS (Postgres), gradually enhanced with 'standards' like SQLEnterprise Knowledge Graph platform and graph DBMS with high availability, high performance reasoning, and virtualizationA lightweight, in-memory graph engine that serves as a reference implementation of the TinkerPop3 API
Primary database modelDocument storeRelational DBMSRelational DBMS infowith object oriented extensions, e.g.: user defined types/functions and inheritance. Handling of key/value pairs with hstore module.Graph DBMS
RDF store
Graph DBMS
Secondary database modelsDocument store
Graph DBMS
Document store
DB-Engines Ranking infomeasures the popularity of database management systemsranking trend
Trend Chart
Score5.36
Rank#68  Overall
#11  Document stores
Score1075.87
Rank#3  Overall
#3  Relational DBMS
Score536.77
Rank#4  Overall
#4  Relational DBMS
Score1.36
Rank#144  Overall
#11  Graph DBMS
#6  RDF stores
Score0.15
Rank#281  Overall
#24  Graph DBMS
Websitecloud.google.com/­datastorewww.microsoft.com/­en-us/­sql-serverwww.postgresql.orgwww.stardog.comtinkerpop.apache.org/­docs/­current/­reference/­#tinkergraph-gremlin
Technical documentationcloud.google.com/­datastore/­docsdocs.microsoft.com/­en-ie/­sql/­sql-server/­sql-server-technical-documentationwww.postgresql.org/­docs/­manualswww.stardog.com/­docs
DeveloperGoogleMicrosoftPostgreSQL Global Development Group infowww.postgresql.org/­developerStardog-Union
Initial release200819891989 info1989: Postgres, 1996: PostgreSQL20102009
Current releaseSQL Server 2019, November 201912.3, May 20207.3.0, May 2020
License infoCommercial or Open Sourcecommercialcommercial inforestricted free version is availableOpen Source infoBSDcommercial info60-day fully-featured trial license; 1-year fully-featured non-commercial use license for academics/studentsOpen Source infoApache 2.0
Cloud-based only infoOnly available as a cloud serviceyesnononono
DBaaS offerings (sponsored links) infoDatabase as a Service

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Implementation languageC++CJavaJava
Server operating systemshostedLinux
Windows
FreeBSD
HP-UX
Linux
NetBSD
OpenBSD
OS X
Solaris
Unix
Windows
Linux
macOS
Windows
Data schemeschema-freeyesyesschema-free and OWL/RDFS-schema supportschema-free
Typing infopredefined data types such as float or dateyes, details hereyesyesyesyes
XML support infoSome form of processing data in XML format, e.g. support for XML data structures, and/or support for XPath, XQuery or XSLT.noyesyes infospecific XML-type available, but no XML query functionality.no infoImport/export of XML data possibleno
Secondary indexesyesyesyesyes infosupports real-time indexing in full-text and geospatialno
SQL infoSupport of SQLSQL-like query language (GQL)yesyes infostandard with numerous extensionsYes, compatible with all major SQL variants through dedicated BI/SQL Serverno
APIs and other access methodsgRPC (using protocol buffers) API
RESTful HTTP/JSON API
ADO.NET
JDBC
ODBC
OLE DB
Tabular Data Stream (TDS)
ADO.NET
JDBC
native C library
ODBC
streaming API for large objects
GraphQL query language
HTTP API
Jena RDF API
OWL
RDF4J API
Sesame REST HTTP Protocol
SNARL
SPARQL
Spring Data
Stardog Studio
TinkerPop 3
TinkerPop 3
Supported programming languages.Net
Go
Java
JavaScript (Node.js)
PHP
Python
Ruby
C#
C++
Delphi
Go
Java
JavaScript (Node.js)
PHP
Python
R
Ruby
Visual Basic
.Net
C
C++
Delphi
Java infoJDBC
JavaScript (Node.js)
Perl
PHP
Python
Tcl
.Net
Clojure
Groovy
Java
JavaScript
Python
Ruby
Groovy
Java
Server-side scripts infoStored proceduresusing Google App EngineTransact SQL, .NET languages, R, Python and (with SQL Server 2019) Javauser defined functions inforealized in proprietary language PL/pgSQL or with common languages like Perl, Python, Tcl etc.user defined functions and aggregates, HTTP Server extensions in Javano
TriggersCallbacks using the Google Apps Engineyesyesyes infovia event handlersno
Partitioning methods infoMethods for storing different data on different nodesShardingtables can be distributed across several files (horizontal partitioning); sharding through federationpartitioning by range, list and (since PostgreSQL 11) by hashnonenone
Replication methods infoMethods for redundantly storing data on multiple nodesMulti-source replication using Paxosyes, but depending on the SQL-Server EditionSource-replica replication infoother methods possible by using 3rd party extensionsMulti-source replication in HA-Clusternone
MapReduce infoOffers an API for user-defined Map/Reduce methodsyes infousing Google Cloud Dataflownononono
Consistency concepts infoMethods to ensure consistency in a distributed systemImmediate Consistency or Eventual Consistency depending on type of query and configuration infoStrong Consistency is default for entity lookups and queries within an Entity Group (but can instead be made eventually consistent). Other queries are always eventual consistent.Immediate ConsistencyImmediate ConsistencyImmediate Consistency in HA-Clusternone
Foreign keys infoReferential integrityyes infovia ReferenceProperties or Ancestor pathsyesyesyes inforelationships in graphsyes infoRelationships in graphs
Transaction concepts infoSupport to ensure data integrity after non-atomic manipulations of dataACID infoSerializable Isolation within Transactions, Read Committed outside of TransactionsACIDACIDACIDno
Concurrency infoSupport for concurrent manipulation of datayesyesyesyesno
Durability infoSupport for making data persistentyesyesyesyesoptional
In-memory capabilities infoIs there an option to define some or all structures to be held in-memory only.noyesnoyesyes
User concepts infoAccess controlAccess rights for users, groups and roles based on Google Cloud Identity and Access Management (IAM)fine grained access rights according to SQL-standardfine grained access rights according to SQL-standardAccess rights for users and rolesno
More information provided by the system vendor
Google Cloud DatastoreMicrosoft SQL ServerPostgreSQLStardogTinkerGraph
Specific characteristicsStardog is an Enterprise Knowledge Graph platform, uniquely combining graph storage...
» more
Competitive advantagesStardog provides a full featureset to aid in data integration for your complex data....
» more
Typical application scenariosStardog is frequently used for: Anti-money laundering & fraud monitoring Customer...
» more
Key customersBosch, Dow Jones, Elsevier, Ericsson, Morgan Stanley, NASA, NIH, Nokia, Salesforce,...
» more
Market metricsStardog's technology is based on ground-breaking research by our founders cited 10,000+...
» more
Licensing and pricing modelsA fully-featured 60-day Trial license is available for those testing Stardog; contact...
» more

We invite representatives of system vendors to contact us for updating and extending the system information,
and for displaying vendor-provided information such as key customers, competitive advantages and market metrics.

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More resources
Google Cloud DatastoreMicrosoft SQL ServerPostgreSQLStardogTinkerGraph
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