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DBMS > Google BigQuery vs. Microsoft Azure SQL Database vs. PostgreSQL

System Properties Comparison Google BigQuery vs. Microsoft Azure SQL Database vs. PostgreSQL

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Editorial information provided by DB-Engines
NameGoogle BigQuery  Xexclude from comparisonMicrosoft Azure SQL Database infoformerly SQL Azure  Xexclude from comparisonPostgreSQL  Xexclude from comparison
DescriptionLarge scale data warehouse service with append-only tablesDatabase as a Service offering with high compatibility to Microsoft SQL ServerWidely used open source RDBMS infoDeveloped as objectoriented DBMS (Postgres), gradually enhanced with 'standards' like SQL
Primary database modelRelational DBMSRelational DBMSRelational DBMS infowith object oriented extensions, e.g.: user defined types/functions and inheritance. Handling of key/value pairs with hstore module.
Secondary database modelsDocument store
Graph DBMS
Spatial DBMS
Document store
Spatial DBMS
DB-Engines Ranking infomeasures the popularity of database management systemsranking trend
Trend Chart
Score48.61
Rank#23  Overall
#15  Relational DBMS
Score85.33
Rank#15  Overall
#10  Relational DBMS
Score615.29
Rank#4  Overall
#4  Relational DBMS
Websitecloud.google.com/­bigqueryazure.microsoft.com/­en-us/­services/­sql-databasewww.postgresql.org
Technical documentationcloud.google.com/­bigquery/­docsdocs.microsoft.com/­en-us/­azure/­azure-sqlwww.postgresql.org/­docs
DeveloperGoogleMicrosoftPostgreSQL Global Development Group infowww.postgresql.org/­developer
Initial release201020101989 info1989: Postgres, 1996: PostgreSQL
Current releaseV1214.3, May 2022
License infoCommercial or Open SourcecommercialcommercialOpen Source infoBSD
Cloud-based only infoOnly available as a cloud serviceyesyesno
DBaaS offerings (sponsored links) infoDatabase as a Service

Providers of DBaaS offerings, please contact us to be listed.
ScaleGrid for PostgreSQL: Fully managed PostgreSQL hosting on AWS, Azure and DigitalOcean with high availability and SSH access on the #1 multi-cloud DBaaS.
Implementation languageC++C
Server operating systemshostedhostedFreeBSD
HP-UX
Linux
NetBSD
OpenBSD
OS X
Solaris
Unix
Windows
Data schemeyesyesyes
Typing infopredefined data types such as float or dateyesyesyes
XML support infoSome form of processing data in XML format, e.g. support for XML data structures, and/or support for XPath, XQuery or XSLT.noyesyes infospecific XML-type available, but no XML query functionality.
Secondary indexesnoyesyes
SQL infoSupport of SQLyesyesyes infostandard with numerous extensions
APIs and other access methodsRESTful HTTP/JSON APIADO.NET
JDBC
ODBC
ADO.NET
JDBC
native C library
ODBC
streaming API for large objects
Supported programming languages.Net
Java
JavaScript
Objective-C
PHP
Python
Ruby
.Net
C#
Java
JavaScript (Node.js)
PHP
Python
Ruby
.Net
C
C++
Delphi
Java infoJDBC
JavaScript (Node.js)
Perl
PHP
Python
Tcl
Server-side scripts infoStored proceduresuser defined functions infoin JavaScriptTransact SQLuser defined functions inforealized in proprietary language PL/pgSQL or with common languages like Perl, Python, Tcl etc.
Triggersnoyesyes
Partitioning methods infoMethods for storing different data on different nodesnonepartitioning by range, list and (since PostgreSQL 11) by hash
Replication methods infoMethods for redundantly storing data on multiple nodesyes, with always 3 replicas availableSource-replica replication infoother methods possible by using 3rd party extensions
MapReduce infoOffers an API for user-defined Map/Reduce methodsnonono
Consistency concepts infoMethods to ensure consistency in a distributed systemImmediate ConsistencyImmediate ConsistencyImmediate Consistency
Foreign keys infoReferential integritynoyesyes
Transaction concepts infoSupport to ensure data integrity after non-atomic manipulations of datano infoSince BigQuery is designed for querying dataACIDACID
Concurrency infoSupport for concurrent manipulation of datayesyesyes
Durability infoSupport for making data persistentyesyesyes
In-memory capabilities infoIs there an option to define some or all structures to be held in-memory only.nono
User concepts infoAccess controlAccess privileges (owner, writer, reader) on dataset, table or view level infoGoogle Cloud Identity & Access Management (IAM)fine grained access rights according to SQL-standardfine grained access rights according to SQL-standard

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More resources
Google BigQueryMicrosoft Azure SQL Database infoformerly SQL AzurePostgreSQL
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