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DBMS > Google BigQuery vs. Microsoft Azure Cosmos DB vs. Microsoft Azure Synapse Analytics vs. PostgreSQL

System Properties Comparison Google BigQuery vs. Microsoft Azure Cosmos DB vs. Microsoft Azure Synapse Analytics vs. PostgreSQL

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Editorial information provided by DB-Engines
NameGoogle BigQuery  Xexclude from comparisonMicrosoft Azure Cosmos DB infoformer name was Azure DocumentDB  Xexclude from comparisonMicrosoft Azure Synapse Analytics infopreviously named Azure SQL Data Warehouse  Xexclude from comparisonPostgreSQL  Xexclude from comparison
DescriptionLarge scale data warehouse service with append-only tablesGlobally distributed, horizontally scalable, multi-model database serviceElastic, large scale data warehouse service leveraging the broad eco-system of SQL ServerWidely used open source RDBMS infoDeveloped as objectoriented DBMS (Postgres), gradually enhanced with 'standards' like SQL
Primary database modelRelational DBMSDocument store
Graph DBMS
Key-value store
Wide column store
Relational DBMSRelational DBMS infowith object oriented extensions, e.g.: user defined types/functions and inheritance. Handling of key/value pairs with hstore module.
Secondary database modelsSpatial DBMSDocument store
Spatial DBMS
DB-Engines Ranking infomeasures the popularity of database management systemsranking trend
Trend Chart
Score37.63
Rank#24  Overall
#15  Relational DBMS
Score34.71
Rank#25  Overall
#3  Document stores
#2  Graph DBMS
#3  Key-value stores
#3  Wide column stores
Score13.29
Rank#41  Overall
#25  Relational DBMS
Score559.25
Rank#4  Overall
#4  Relational DBMS
Websitecloud.google.com/­bigqueryazure.microsoft.com/­services/­cosmos-dbazure.microsoft.com/­services/­synapse-analyticswww.postgresql.org
Technical documentationcloud.google.com/­bigquery/­docsdocs.microsoft.com/­azure/­cosmos-dbdocs.microsoft.com/­azure/­synapse-analyticswww.postgresql.org/­docs
DeveloperGoogleMicrosoftMicrosoftPostgreSQL Global Development Group infowww.postgresql.org/­developer
Initial release2010201420161989 info1989: Postgres, 1996: PostgreSQL
Current release13.2 , February 2021
License infoCommercial or Open SourcecommercialcommercialcommercialOpen Source infoBSD
Cloud-based only infoOnly available as a cloud serviceyesyesyesno
DBaaS offerings (sponsored links) infoDatabase as a Service

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Implementation languageC++C
Server operating systemshostedhostedhostedFreeBSD
HP-UX
Linux
NetBSD
OpenBSD
OS X
Solaris
Unix
Windows
Data schemeyesschema-freeyesyes
Typing infopredefined data types such as float or dateyesyes infoJSON typesyesyes
XML support infoSome form of processing data in XML format, e.g. support for XML data structures, and/or support for XPath, XQuery or XSLT.nonoyes infospecific XML-type available, but no XML query functionality.
Secondary indexesnoyes infoAll properties auto-indexed by defaultyesyes
SQL infoSupport of SQLyesSQL-like query languageyesyes infostandard with numerous extensions
APIs and other access methodsRESTful HTTP/JSON APIDocumentDB API
Graph API (Gremlin)
MongoDB API
RESTful HTTP API
Table API
ADO.NET
JDBC
ODBC
ADO.NET
JDBC
native C library
ODBC
streaming API for large objects
Supported programming languages.Net
Java
JavaScript
Objective-C
PHP
Python
Ruby
.Net
C#
Java
JavaScript
JavaScript (Node.js)
MongoDB client drivers written for various programming languages
Python
C#
Java
PHP
.Net
C
C++
Delphi
Java infoJDBC
JavaScript (Node.js)
Perl
PHP
Python
Tcl
Server-side scripts infoStored proceduresuser defined functions infoin JavaScriptJavaScriptTransact SQLuser defined functions inforealized in proprietary language PL/pgSQL or with common languages like Perl, Python, Tcl etc.
TriggersnoJavaScriptnoyes
Partitioning methods infoMethods for storing different data on different nodesnoneSharding infoImplicit feature of the cloud serviceSharding, horizontal partitioningpartitioning by range, list and (since PostgreSQL 11) by hash
Replication methods infoMethods for redundantly storing data on multiple nodesyes infoImplicit feature of the cloud serviceyesSource-replica replication infoother methods possible by using 3rd party extensions
MapReduce infoOffers an API for user-defined Map/Reduce methodsnowith Hadoop integration infoIntegration with Hadoop/HDInsight on Azure*nono
Consistency concepts infoMethods to ensure consistency in a distributed systemImmediate ConsistencyBounded Staleness
Consistent Prefix
Eventual Consistency
Immediate Consistency infoConsistency level configurable on request level
Session Consistency
Immediate ConsistencyImmediate Consistency
Foreign keys infoReferential integritynonono infodocs.microsoft.com/­en-us/­azure/­synapse-analytics/­sql-data-warehouse/­sql-data-warehouse-table-constraintsyes
Transaction concepts infoSupport to ensure data integrity after non-atomic manipulations of datano infoSince BigQuery is designed for querying dataMulti-item ACID transactions with snapshot isolation within a partitionACIDACID
Concurrency infoSupport for concurrent manipulation of datayesyesyesyes
Durability infoSupport for making data persistentyesyesyesyes
In-memory capabilities infoIs there an option to define some or all structures to be held in-memory only.nono
User concepts infoAccess controlAccess privileges (owner, writer, reader) for whole datasets, not for individual tables infoGoogle Cloud Identity & Access Management (IAM)Access rights can be defined down to the item levelyesfine grained access rights according to SQL-standard

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More resources
Google BigQueryMicrosoft Azure Cosmos DB infoformer name was Azure DocumentDBMicrosoft Azure Synapse Analytics infopreviously named Azure SQL Data WarehousePostgreSQL
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