DB-EnginesDo you need a hard real time database?English
Deutsch
Knowledge Base of Relational and NoSQL Database Management Systemsprovided by solid IT

DBMS > FoundationDB vs. LeanXcale vs. Lovefield vs. Nebula Graph

System Properties Comparison FoundationDB vs. LeanXcale vs. Lovefield vs. Nebula Graph

Please select another system to include it in the comparison.

Editorial information provided by DB-Engines
NameFoundationDB  Xexclude from comparisonLeanXcale  Xexclude from comparisonLovefield  Xexclude from comparisonNebula Graph  Xexclude from comparison
Created as commercial project in 2013, FoundationDB has been acquired by Apple in March 2015 and was withdrawn from the market. As a consequence, the product was removed from the DB-Engines ranking. In April 2018, Apple open-sourced FoundationDB and it therefore reappears in the ranking.
DescriptionOrdered key-value store. Core features are complimented by layers.A highly scalable full ACID SQL database with fast NoSQL data ingestion and GIS capabilitiesEmbeddable relational database for web apps written in pure JavaScriptA distributed, linear scalable, high perfomant Graph DBMS
Primary database modelDocument store infosupported via specific layer
Key-value store
Relational DBMS infosupported via specific SQL-layer
Key-value store
Relational DBMS
Relational DBMSGraph DBMS
DB-Engines Ranking infomeasures the popularity of database management systemsranking trend
Trend Chart
Score1.48
Rank#142  Overall
#24  Document stores
#27  Key-value stores
#70  Relational DBMS
Score0.17
Rank#297  Overall
#43  Key-value stores
#138  Relational DBMS
Score0.23
Rank#286  Overall
#134  Relational DBMS
Score1.11
Rank#168  Overall
#15  Graph DBMS
Websitewww.foundationdb.orgwww.leanxcale.comgoogle.github.io/­lovefieldgithub.com/­vesoft-inc/­nebula
nebula-graph.io
Technical documentationapple.github.io/­foundationdbgithub.com/­google/­lovefield/­blob/­master/­docs/­spec_index.mddocs.nebula-graph.io
DeveloperFoundationDBLeanXcaleGoogleVesoft Inc.
Initial release2013201520142019
Current release6.2.28, November 20202.1.12, February 2017
License infoCommercial or Open SourceOpen Source infoApache 2.0commercialOpen Source infoApache 2.0Open Source infoApache Version 2.0 + Common Clause 1.0
Cloud-based only infoOnly available as a cloud servicenononono
DBaaS offerings (sponsored links) infoDatabase as a Service

Providers of DBaaS offerings, please contact us to be listed.
Implementation languageC++JavaScriptC++
Server operating systemsLinux
OS X
Windows
server-less, requires a JavaScript environment (browser, Node.js) infotested with Chrome, Firefox, IE, SafariLinux
Data schemeschema-free infosome layers support schemasyesyesStrong typed schema
Typing infopredefined data types such as float or dateno infosome layers support typingyesyes
XML support infoSome form of processing data in XML format, e.g. support for XML data structures, and/or support for XPath, XQuery or XSLT.nono
Secondary indexesnoyesyes infoNebula Graph internally uses the Key-Value store RocksDB for persistency. The vertices, edges, and their properties are stored as Key while their values are stored as Value. The primary indexes are per Key and secondary indexes are per Value.
SQL infoSupport of SQLsupported in specific SQL layer onlyyes infothrough Apache DerbySQL-like query language infovia JavaScript builder patternSQL-like query language
APIs and other access methodsJDBC
Kafka Connector
ODBC
proprietary key/value interface
Spark Connector
Browser interface
console (shell)
Proprietary native API
Query language nGQL
Supported programming languages.Net
C
C++
Go
Java
JavaScript infoNode.js
PHP
Python
Ruby
Swift
C
Java
Scala
JavaScriptC++
Go
Java
Python
Server-side scripts infoStored proceduresin SQL-layer onlyno
TriggersnoUsing read-only observers
Partitioning methods infoMethods for storing different data on different nodesShardingnoneSharding
Replication methods infoMethods for redundantly storing data on multiple nodesyesnoneCausal Clustering using Raft protocol
MapReduce infoOffers an API for user-defined Map/Reduce methodsnononono
Consistency concepts infoMethods to ensure consistency in a distributed systemLinearizable consistencyImmediate ConsistencyImmediate Consistency
Foreign keys infoReferential integrityin SQL-layer onlyyesyesyes infoRelationships in graphs
Transaction concepts infoSupport to ensure data integrity after non-atomic manipulations of dataACIDACIDACIDACID
Concurrency infoSupport for concurrent manipulation of datayesyesyesyes
Durability infoSupport for making data persistentyesyesyes, by using IndexedDB or the cloud service Firebase Realtime Databaseyes infousing RocksDB
In-memory capabilities infoIs there an option to define some or all structures to be held in-memory only.yesyes infousing MemoryDByes
User concepts infoAccess controlnonoRole-based access control
More information provided by the system vendor
FoundationDBLeanXcaleLovefieldNebula Graph
Specific characteristicsFull ACID and full SQL operational database with analytical queries over operational...
» more
Nebula Graph is a truly distributed, linearly scalable, lightning-fast graph database,...
» more
Competitive advantagesLinear scalability upto 100s of nodes (tested with 100 nodes and TPC-C).
» more
Nebula Graph boasts the world's only graph database solution that is able to host...
» more
Typical application scenariosHybrid Transactional-Analytical Processing (HTAP) requiring an operational database...
» more
Social networking Fraud detection Knowledge graph Data warehouse management Anti...
» more
Key customersbanking/finance/fintech, telco, insurance, traveltech, M2M/IoT, retail
» more
Currently we have some top internet companies in China implementing Nebula Graph...
» more
Market metrics15 beta testers
» more
At our very early stage, Nebula Graph has already received 3.5k stars and thousands...
» more
Licensing and pricing modelsannual fee covering license and support based on number of physical cores
» more
Nebula Graph is open source and free to use under Apache 2.0 license and Common Clause...
» more

We invite representatives of system vendors to contact us for updating and extending the system information,
and for displaying vendor-provided information such as key customers, competitive advantages and market metrics.

Related products and services

We invite representatives of vendors of related products to contact us for presenting information about their offerings here.

More resources
FoundationDBLeanXcaleLovefieldNebula Graph
Recent citations in the news

IBM Cloudant pulls plan to fund new foundational layer for CouchDB
15 March 2022, The Register

FoundationDB, a very interesting NoSQL database owned by Apple, is now an open-source project
19 April 2018, GeekWire

Key Value Database Market Report Shows Demand to Boost Industry Growth from 2022 to 2027| The Apache Software Foundation, Redis Labs, Aerospike, Couchbase, Amazon Web Services (AWS), etc.
10 June 2022, Digital Journal

Apple Acquires Durable Database Company FoundationDB
24 March 2015, TechCrunch

FoundationDB's Record Layer Supports Relational Database Semantics, Schema Management and Indexing
10 February 2019, InfoQ.com

provided by Google News

Nebula Graph Takes Another Step to Lead Global Graph Database Market With the Release of V3.0.0
18 February 2022, MarTech Series

Third Time Is The Charm For Nebula Graph Database
19 January 2021, The Next Platform

Nebula Graph Joins Database Race
15 June 2020, Datanami

The World's Most Capable Graph Database, Nebula Graph™, Debuts for Unmatched Big Data Analytics Discovery
29 June 2020, PR Web

Graph Database Startup Vesoft Seeks Funds at $1 Billion Value
5 July 2021, Bloomberg

provided by Google News

Job opportunities

Senior Software Engineer (Hybrid Mobile and Web Apps)
Universal Avionics Systems Corporation, Duluth, GA

Call Center Representative
Etech, Dallas, TX

Laboratory Courier Route Driver split shift (3:30p-6:30p) & (1a-2a)
Labgistex Inc., Addison, TX

Laboratory Courier Route Driver- 1 Hour Route Daily Tuesday- Sunday
Labgistex Inc., Addison, TX

jobs by Indeed



Share this page

Featured Products

The definitive guide for Cassandra

Imagine What You Could Do if Scalability Wasn‘t a Problem!
Download the Cassandra e-book for free!

AllegroGraph logo

Graph Database Leader for AI Knowledge Graph Applications - The Most Secure Graph Database Available.
Free Download

Redis logo

The world’s most loved real‑time data platform.
Try free

Neo4j logo

See for yourself how a graph database can make your life easier.
Use Neo4j online for free.

MariaDB logo

SkySQL, the ultimate
MariaDB cloud, is here.

Get started with SkySQL today!

Present your product here