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DBMS > Elasticsearch vs. Microsoft Azure SQL Database vs. PostgreSQL

System Properties Comparison Elasticsearch vs. Microsoft Azure SQL Database vs. PostgreSQL

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Editorial information provided by DB-Engines
NameElasticsearch  Xexclude from comparisonMicrosoft Azure SQL Database infoformerly SQL Azure  Xexclude from comparisonPostgreSQL  Xexclude from comparison
DescriptionA distributed, RESTful modern search and analytics engine based on Apache Lucene infoElasticsearch lets you perform and combine many types of searches such as structured, unstructured, geo, and metricDatabase as a Service offering with high compatibility to Microsoft SQL ServerWidely used open source RDBMS infoDeveloped as objectoriented DBMS (Postgres), gradually enhanced with 'standards' like SQL
Primary database modelSearch engineRelational DBMSRelational DBMS infowith object oriented extensions, e.g.: user defined types/functions and inheritance. Handling of key/value pairs with hstore module.
Secondary database modelsDocument store
Spatial DBMS
Document store
Graph DBMS
Spatial DBMS
Document store
Spatial DBMS
DB-Engines Ranking infomeasures the popularity of database management systemsranking trend
Trend Chart
Score160.75
Rank#8  Overall
#1  Search engines
Score86.32
Rank#14  Overall
#9  Relational DBMS
Score606.56
Rank#4  Overall
#4  Relational DBMS
Websitewww.elastic.co/­elasticsearchazure.microsoft.com/­en-us/­services/­sql-databasewww.postgresql.org
Technical documentationwww.elastic.co/­guide/­en/­elasticsearch/­reference/­current/­index.htmldocs.microsoft.com/­en-us/­azure/­azure-sqlwww.postgresql.org/­docs
DeveloperElasticMicrosoftPostgreSQL Global Development Group infowww.postgresql.org/­developer
Initial release201020101989 info1989: Postgres, 1996: PostgreSQL
Current release7.8.0, June 2020V1214.1, November 2021
License infoCommercial or Open SourceOpen Source infoApache Version 2; Elastic LicensecommercialOpen Source infoBSD
Cloud-based only infoOnly available as a cloud servicenoyesno
DBaaS offerings (sponsored links) infoDatabase as a Service

Providers of DBaaS offerings, please contact us to be listed.
ScaleGrid for PostgreSQL: Fully managed PostgreSQL hosting on AWS, Azure and DigitalOcean with high availability and SSH access on the #1 multi-cloud DBaaS.
Implementation languageJavaC++C
Server operating systemsAll OS with a Java VMhostedFreeBSD
HP-UX
Linux
NetBSD
OpenBSD
OS X
Solaris
Unix
Windows
Data schemeschema-free infoFlexible type definitions. Once a type is defined, it is persistentyesyes
Typing infopredefined data types such as float or dateyesyesyes
XML support infoSome form of processing data in XML format, e.g. support for XML data structures, and/or support for XPath, XQuery or XSLT.noyesyes infospecific XML-type available, but no XML query functionality.
Secondary indexesyes infoAll search fields are automatically indexedyesyes
SQL infoSupport of SQLSQL-like query languageyesyes infostandard with numerous extensions
APIs and other access methodsJava API
RESTful HTTP/JSON API
ADO.NET
JDBC
ODBC
ADO.NET
JDBC
native C library
ODBC
streaming API for large objects
Supported programming languages.Net
Groovy
Community Contributed Clients
Java
JavaScript
Perl
PHP
Python
Ruby
.Net
C#
Java
JavaScript (Node.js)
PHP
Python
Ruby
.Net
C
C++
Delphi
Java infoJDBC
JavaScript (Node.js)
Perl
PHP
Python
Tcl
Server-side scripts infoStored proceduresyesTransact SQLuser defined functions inforealized in proprietary language PL/pgSQL or with common languages like Perl, Python, Tcl etc.
Triggersyes infoby using the 'percolation' featureyesyes
Partitioning methods infoMethods for storing different data on different nodesShardingpartitioning by range, list and (since PostgreSQL 11) by hash
Replication methods infoMethods for redundantly storing data on multiple nodesyesyes, with always 3 replicas availableSource-replica replication infoother methods possible by using 3rd party extensions
MapReduce infoOffers an API for user-defined Map/Reduce methodsES-Hadoop Connectornono
Consistency concepts infoMethods to ensure consistency in a distributed systemEventual Consistency infoSynchronous doc based replication. Get by ID may show delays up to 1 sec. Configurable write consistency: one, quorum, allImmediate ConsistencyImmediate Consistency
Foreign keys infoReferential integritynoyesyes
Transaction concepts infoSupport to ensure data integrity after non-atomic manipulations of datanoACIDACID
Concurrency infoSupport for concurrent manipulation of datayesyesyes
Durability infoSupport for making data persistentyesyesyes
In-memory capabilities infoIs there an option to define some or all structures to be held in-memory only.Memcached and Redis integrationno
User concepts infoAccess controlfine grained access rights according to SQL-standardfine grained access rights according to SQL-standard

More information provided by the system vendor

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More resources
ElasticsearchMicrosoft Azure SQL Database infoformerly SQL AzurePostgreSQL
DB-Engines blog posts

PostgreSQL is the DBMS of the Year 2017
2 January 2018, Paul Andlinger, Matthias Gelbmann

Elasticsearch moved into the top 10 most popular database management systems
3 July 2017, Matthias Gelbmann

MySQL, PostgreSQL and Redis are the winners of the March ranking
2 March 2016, Paul Andlinger

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PostgreSQL is the DBMS of the Year 2020
4 January 2021, Paul Andlinger, Matthias Gelbmann

Cloud-based DBMS's popularity grows at high rates
12 December 2019, Paul Andlinger

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7 February 2017, Matthias Gelbmann

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Snowflake is the DBMS of the Year 2021
3 January 2022, Paul Andlinger, Matthias Gelbmann

Driving the Future of PostgreSQL Adoption
15 November 2021,  Umair Shahid, Percona (sponsor) 

The Inexorable Rise of PostgreSQL
24 September 2021,  Matt Yonkovit, Percona (sponsor) 

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Conferences and events

Postgres Build 2021
On Demand Talks, 30 November 2021 - 1 December 2021 (finished)

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