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DBMS > EJDB vs. Google Cloud Bigtable vs. Neo4j vs. Virtuoso

System Properties Comparison EJDB vs. Google Cloud Bigtable vs. Neo4j vs. Virtuoso

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Editorial information provided by DB-Engines
NameEJDB  Xexclude from comparisonGoogle Cloud Bigtable  Xexclude from comparisonNeo4j  Xexclude from comparisonVirtuoso  Xexclude from comparison
DescriptionEmbeddable document-store database library with JSON representation of queries (in MongoDB style)Google's NoSQL Big Data database service. It's the same database that powers many core Google services, including Search, Analytics, Maps, and Gmail.Scalable, ACID-compliant graph database designed with a high-performance distributed cluster architecture, available in self-hosted and cloud offeringsVirtuoso is a multi-model hybrid-RDBMS that supports management of data represented as relational tables and/or property graphs
Primary database modelDocument storeKey-value store
Wide column store
Graph DBMSDocument store
Graph DBMS
Native XML DBMS
Relational DBMS
RDF store
Search engine
Secondary database modelsSpatial DBMS
DB-Engines Ranking infomeasures the popularity of database management systemsranking trend
Trend Chart
Score0.29
Rank#298  Overall
#41  Document stores
Score5.44
Rank#79  Overall
#12  Key-value stores
#6  Wide column stores
Score58.68
Rank#19  Overall
#1  Graph DBMS
Score5.72
Rank#75  Overall
#14  Document stores
#4  Graph DBMS
#2  Native XML DBMS
#40  Relational DBMS
#2  RDF stores
#10  Search engines
Websiteejdb.orgcloud.google.com/­bigtableneo4j.comvirtuoso.openlinksw.com
Technical documentationgithub.com/­Softmotions/­ejdb/­blob/­master/­README.mdcloud.google.com/­bigtable/­docsneo4j.com/­docsdocs.openlinksw.com/­virtuoso
DeveloperSoftmotionsGoogleNeo4j, Inc.OpenLink Software
Initial release2012201520071998
Current release4.4.11, September 20227.2.7, May 2022
License infoCommercial or Open SourceOpen Source infoGPLv2commercialOpen Source infoGPL version3, commercial licenses availableOpen Source infoGPLv2, extended commercial license available
Cloud-based only infoOnly available as a cloud servicenoyesnono
DBaaS offerings (sponsored links) infoDatabase as a Service

Providers of DBaaS offerings, please contact us to be listed.
Neo4j Aura: Neo4j’s fully managed cloud service: The zero-admin, always-on graph database for cloud developers.
Implementation languageCJava, ScalaC
Server operating systemsserver-lesshostedLinux infoCan also be used server-less as embedded Java database.
OS X
Solaris
Windows
AIX
FreeBSD
HP-UX
Linux
OS X
Solaris
Windows
Data schemeschema-freeschema-freeschema-free and schema-optionalyes infoSQL - Standard relational schema
RDF - Quad (S, P, O, G) or Triple (S, P, O)
XML - DTD, XML Schema
DAV - freeform filesystem objects, plus User Defined Types a/k/a Dynamic Extension Type
Typing infopredefined data types such as float or dateyes infostring, integer, double, bool, date, object_idnoyesyes
XML support infoSome form of processing data in XML format, e.g. support for XML data structures, and/or support for XPath, XQuery or XSLT.noyes
Secondary indexesnonoyes infopluggable indexing subsystem, by default Apache Luceneyes
SQL infoSupport of SQLnononoyes infoSQL-92, SQL-200x, SQL-3, SQLX
APIs and other access methodsin-process shared librarygRPC (using protocol buffers) API
HappyBase (Python library)
HBase compatible API (Java)
Bolt protocol
Cypher query language
Java API
Neo4j-OGM infoObject Graph Mapper
RESTful HTTP API
Spring Data Neo4j
TinkerPop 3
ADO.NET
GeoSPARQL
HTTP API
JDBC
Jena RDF API
ODBC
OLE DB
RDF4J API
RESTful HTTP API
Sesame REST HTTP Protocol
SOAP webservices
SPARQL 1.1
WebDAV
XPath
XQuery
XSLT
Supported programming languagesActionscript
C
C#
C++
Go
Java
JavaScript (Node.js)
Lua
Objective-C
Pike
Python
Ruby
C#
C++
Go
Java
JavaScript (Node.js)
Python
.Net
Clojure
Elixir
Go
Groovy
Haskell
Java
JavaScript
Perl
PHP
Python
Ruby
Scala
.Net
C
C#
C++
Java
JavaScript
Perl
PHP
Python
Ruby
Visual Basic
Server-side scripts infoStored proceduresnonoyes infoUser defined Procedures and Functionsyes infoVirtuoso PL
Triggersnonoyes infovia event handleryes
Partitioning methods infoMethods for storing different data on different nodesnoneShardingyes using Neo4j Fabricyes
Replication methods infoMethods for redundantly storing data on multiple nodesnoneInternal replication in Colossus, and regional replication between two clusters in different zonesCausal Clustering using Raft protocol infoavailable in in Enterprise Version onlyChain, star, and bi-directional replication
Multi-source replication
Source-replica replication
MapReduce infoOffers an API for user-defined Map/Reduce methodsnoyesnoyes
Consistency concepts infoMethods to ensure consistency in a distributed systemImmediate consistency (for a single cluster), Eventual consistency (for two or more replicated clusters)Causal and Eventual Consistency configurable in Causal Cluster setup
Immediate Consistency in stand-alone mode
Immediate Consistency
Foreign keys infoReferential integrityno infotypically not needed, however similar functionality with collection joins possiblenoyes infoRelationships in graphsyes
Transaction concepts infoSupport to ensure data integrity after non-atomic manipulations of datanoAtomic single-row operationsACIDACID
Concurrency infoSupport for concurrent manipulation of datayes infoRead/Write Lockingyesyesyes
Durability infoSupport for making data persistentyesyesyesyes
In-memory capabilities infoIs there an option to define some or all structures to be held in-memory only.noyes
User concepts infoAccess controlnoAccess rights for users, groups and roles based on Google Cloud Identity and Access Management (IAM)Users, roles and permissions. Pluggable authentication with supported standards (LDAP, Active Directory, Kerberos)Fine-grained Attribute-Based Access Control (ABAC) in addition to typical coarse-grained Role-Based Access Control (RBAC) according to SQL-standard. Pluggable authentication with supported standards (LDAP, Active Directory, Kerberos)
More information provided by the system vendor
EJDBGoogle Cloud BigtableNeo4jVirtuoso
Specific characteristicsNeo4j delivers graph technology that has been battle tested for performance and scale...
» more
Virtuoso is a modern multi-model RDBMS for managing data represented as tabular relations...
» more
Competitive advantagesNeo4j is the market leader, graph database category creator, and the most widely...
» more
Performance & Scale — as exemplified by DBpedia and the LOD Cloud it spawned, i.e.,...
» more
Typical application scenariosReal-Time Recommendations Master Data Management Identity and Access Management Network...
» more
Used for — Analytics/BI Conceptual Data Virtualization Enterprise Knowledge Graphs...
» more
Key customersOver 800 commercial customers and over 4300 startups use Neo4j. Flagship customers...
» more
Broad use across enterprises and governments including — European Union (EU) US Government...
» more
Market metricsNeo4j boasts the world's largest graph database ecosystem with more than 140 million...
» more
Largest installed-base ​of Multi-Model RDBMS for AI-friendly Knowledge Graphs Platform...
» more
Licensing and pricing modelsGPL v3 license that can be used all the places where you might use MySQL. Neo4j Commercial...
» more
Available in both Commercial Enterprise and Open Source (GPL v2) Editions Feature...
» more
News

Combating Disease Using Graphs: The 5-Minute Interview With Henrik Enquist
5 October 2022

Loading Data into Neo4j with Google Cloud Dataflow
4 October 2022

New Book: Full Stack GraphQL Applications (Download for Free!)
30 September 2022

NODES 2022 Speaker Highlights
29 September 2022

A Power User’s Experience on Using Graph Databases to Drive Better Decision Making
28 September 2022

We invite representatives of system vendors to contact us for updating and extending the system information,
and for displaying vendor-provided information such as key customers, competitive advantages and market metrics.

Related products and services
3rd partiesGraphable delivers expert services for Neo4j and other Graph DBMS.
» more

We invite representatives of vendors of related products to contact us for presenting information about their offerings here.

More resources
EJDBGoogle Cloud BigtableNeo4jVirtuoso
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