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DBMS > DuckDB vs. H2 vs. PostgreSQL

System Properties Comparison DuckDB vs. H2 vs. PostgreSQL

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Editorial information provided by DB-Engines
NameDuckDB  Xexclude from comparisonH2  Xexclude from comparisonPostgreSQL  Xexclude from comparison
DescriptionAn embeddable, in-process, column-oriented SQL OLAP RDBMSFull-featured RDBMS with a small footprint, either embedded into a Java application or used as a database server.Widely used open source RDBMS infoDeveloped as objectoriented DBMS (Postgres), gradually enhanced with 'standards' like SQL
Primary database modelRelational DBMSRelational DBMSRelational DBMS infowith object oriented extensions, e.g.: user defined types/functions and inheritance. Handling of key/value pairs with hstore module.
Secondary database modelsSpatial DBMSDocument store
Graph DBMS infowith Apache Age
Spatial DBMS
Vector DBMS infowith pgvector extension
DB-Engines Ranking infomeasures the popularity of database management systemsranking trend
Trend Chart
Score4.46
Rank#81  Overall
#43  Relational DBMS
Score8.14
Rank#50  Overall
#32  Relational DBMS
Score634.91
Rank#4  Overall
#4  Relational DBMS
Websiteduckdb.orgwww.h2database.comwww.postgresql.org
Technical documentationduckdb.org/­docswww.h2database.com/­html/­main.htmlwww.postgresql.org/­docs
DeveloperThomas MuellerPostgreSQL Global Development Group infowww.postgresql.org/­developer
Initial release201820051989 info1989: Postgres, 1996: PostgreSQL
Current release0.10, February 20242.2.220, July 202316.2, February 2024
License infoCommercial or Open SourceOpen Source infoMIT LicenseOpen Source infodual-licence (Mozilla public license, Eclipse public license)Open Source infoBSD
Cloud-based only infoOnly available as a cloud servicenonono
DBaaS offerings (sponsored links) infoDatabase as a Service

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Aiven for PostgreSQL: Fully managed PostgreSQL for developers with 70+ extensions and flexible orchestration tools.
Implementation languageC++JavaC
Server operating systemsserver-lessAll OS with a Java VMFreeBSD
HP-UX
Linux
NetBSD
OpenBSD
OS X
Solaris
Unix
Windows
Data schemeyesyesyes
Typing infopredefined data types such as float or dateyesyesyes
XML support infoSome form of processing data in XML format, e.g. support for XML data structures, and/or support for XPath, XQuery or XSLT.nonoyes infospecific XML-type available, but no XML query functionality.
Secondary indexesyesyesyes
SQL infoSupport of SQLyesyesyes infostandard with numerous extensions
APIs and other access methodsArrow Database Connectivity (ADBC)
CLI Client
JDBC
ODBC
JDBC
ODBC
ADO.NET
JDBC
native C library
ODBC
streaming API for large objects
Supported programming languagesC
C# info3rd party driver
C++
Crystal info3rd party driver
Go info3rd party driver
Java
Lisp info3rd party driver
Python
R
Ruby info3rd party driver
Rust
Swift
Zig info3rd party driver
Java.Net
C
C++
Delphi
Java infoJDBC
JavaScript (Node.js)
Perl
PHP
Python
Tcl
Server-side scripts infoStored proceduresnoJava Stored Procedures and User-Defined Functionsuser defined functions inforealized in proprietary language PL/pgSQL or with common languages like Perl, Python, Tcl etc.
Triggersnoyesyes
Partitioning methods infoMethods for storing different data on different nodesnonenonepartitioning by range, list and (since PostgreSQL 11) by hash
Replication methods infoMethods for redundantly storing data on multiple nodesnoneWith clustering: 2 database servers on different computers operate on identical copies of a databaseSource-replica replication infoother methods possible by using 3rd party extensions
MapReduce infoOffers an API for user-defined Map/Reduce methodsnonono
Consistency concepts infoMethods to ensure consistency in a distributed systemImmediate ConsistencyImmediate ConsistencyImmediate Consistency
Foreign keys infoReferential integritynoyesyes
Transaction concepts infoSupport to ensure data integrity after non-atomic manipulations of dataACIDACIDACID
Concurrency infoSupport for concurrent manipulation of datayes, multi-version concurrency control (MVCC)yes, multi-version concurrency control (MVCC)yes
Durability infoSupport for making data persistentyesyesyes
In-memory capabilities infoIs there an option to define some or all structures to be held in-memory only.yesyesno
User concepts infoAccess controlnofine grained access rights according to SQL-standardfine grained access rights according to SQL-standard

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More resources
DuckDBH2PostgreSQL
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Recent citations in the news

How to read OSM data with DuckDB | Kamil Raczycki
2 March 2024, Towards Data Science

In-Process Analytical Data Management with DuckDB
28 February 2024, InfoQ.com

A Comprehensive Guide for Using DuckDB With Go
13 July 2023, hackernoon.com

Seattle startup MotherDuck raises $52.5M at a $400M valuation to fuel DuckDB analytics platform
20 September 2023, GeekWire

MotherDuck Raises $52.5 Million Series B Funding as DuckDB Adoption Soars
20 September 2023, PR Newswire

provided by Google News

Percona Operator for PostgreSQL Earns Red Hat OpenShift Certification for Enhanced Database Management
4 March 2024, BNN Breaking

Best of Makers: PostgreSQL Takes a New Turn
22 February 2024, The New Stack

AWS announces Amazon Aurora PostgreSQL integration with Amazon Bedrock for Generative AI
21 December 2023, AWS Blog

Blog Theme - Details
14 November 2023, blogs.oracle.com

Oracle Introduces PostgreSQL Running Native on OCI
17 December 2023, IDC

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