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DBMS > Dgraph vs. NuoDB vs. PostgreSQL vs. Virtuoso

System Properties Comparison Dgraph vs. NuoDB vs. PostgreSQL vs. Virtuoso

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Editorial information provided by DB-Engines
NameDgraph  Xexclude from comparisonNuoDB  Xexclude from comparisonPostgreSQL  Xexclude from comparisonVirtuoso  Xexclude from comparison
DescriptionDistributed and scalable native Graph DBMSNuoDB is a webscale distributed database that supports SQL and ACID transactionsWidely used open source RDBMS infoDeveloped as objectoriented DBMS (Postgres), gradually enhanced with 'standards' like SQLVirtuoso is a multi-model hybrid-RDBMS that supports management of data represented as relational tables and/or property graphs
Primary database modelGraph DBMSRelational DBMSRelational DBMS infowith object oriented extensions, e.g.: user defined types/functions and inheritance. Handling of key/value pairs with hstore module.Document store
Graph DBMS
Native XML DBMS
Relational DBMS
RDF store
Search engine
Secondary database modelsDocument store
Spatial DBMS
Spatial DBMS
DB-Engines Ranking infomeasures the popularity of database management systemsranking trend
Trend Chart
Score1.81
Rank#127  Overall
#10  Graph DBMS
Score1.10
Rank#167  Overall
#84  Relational DBMS
Score577.50
Rank#4  Overall
#4  Relational DBMS
Score4.42
Rank#79  Overall
#11  Document stores
#4  Graph DBMS
#2  Native XML DBMS
#44  Relational DBMS
#2  RDF stores
#9  Search engines
Websitedgraph.ionuodb.comwww.postgresql.orgvirtuoso.openlinksw.com
Technical documentationdgraph.io/­docsdoc.nuodb.comwww.postgresql.org/­docsdocs.openlinksw.com/­virtuoso
DeveloperDgraph Labs, Inc.NuoDB, Inc.PostgreSQL Global Development Group infowww.postgresql.org/­developerOpenLink Software
Initial release201620131989 info1989: Postgres, 1996: PostgreSQL1998
Current release13.4, August 202108.03.3316, March 2020
License infoCommercial or Open SourceOpen Source infoApache 2.0commercial infolimited edition freeOpen Source infoBSDOpen Source infoGPLv2, extended commercial license available
Cloud-based only infoOnly available as a cloud servicenononono
DBaaS offerings (sponsored links) infoDatabase as a Service

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Implementation languageGoC++CC
Server operating systemsLinux
OS X
Windows
hosted infoAmazon EC2, Windows Azure, SoftLayer
Linux
OS X
Windows
FreeBSD
HP-UX
Linux
NetBSD
OpenBSD
OS X
Solaris
Unix
Windows
AIX
FreeBSD
HP-UX
Linux
OS X
Solaris
Windows
Data schemeschema-freeyesyesyes infoSQL - Standard relational schema
RDF - Quad (S, P, O, G) or Triple (S, P, O)
XML - DTD, XML Schema
DAV - freeform filesystem objects, plus User Defined Types a/k/a Dynamic Extension Type
Typing infopredefined data types such as float or dateyesyesyesyes
XML support infoSome form of processing data in XML format, e.g. support for XML data structures, and/or support for XPath, XQuery or XSLT.nonoyes infospecific XML-type available, but no XML query functionality.yes
Secondary indexesyesyesyesyes
SQL infoSupport of SQLnoyesyes infostandard with numerous extensionsyes infoSQL-92, SQL-200x, SQL-3, SQLX
APIs and other access methodsGraphQL query language
gRPC (using protocol buffers) API
HTTP API
ADO.NET
JDBC
ODBC
ADO.NET
JDBC
native C library
ODBC
streaming API for large objects
ADO.NET
GeoSPARQL
HTTP API
JDBC
Jena RDF API
ODBC
OLE DB
RDF4J API
RESTful HTTP API
Sesame REST HTTP Protocol
SOAP webservices
SPARQL 1.1
WebDAV
XPath
XQuery
XSLT
Supported programming languagesC#
C++
Go
Java
JavaScript (Node.js)
PHP
Python
Ruby
.Net
C
C++
Go
Java
JavaScript
JavaScript (Node.js)
PHP
Python
Ruby
.Net
C
C++
Delphi
Java infoJDBC
JavaScript (Node.js)
Perl
PHP
Python
Tcl
.Net
C
C#
C++
Java
JavaScript
Perl
PHP
Python
Ruby
Visual Basic
Server-side scripts infoStored proceduresnoJava, SQLuser defined functions inforealized in proprietary language PL/pgSQL or with common languages like Perl, Python, Tcl etc.yes infoVirtuoso PL
Triggersnoyesyesyes
Partitioning methods infoMethods for storing different data on different nodesyesdata is dynamically stored/cached on the nodes where it is read/writtenpartitioning by range, list and (since PostgreSQL 11) by hashyes
Replication methods infoMethods for redundantly storing data on multiple nodesSynchronous replication via Raftyes infoManaged transparently by NuoDBSource-replica replication infoother methods possible by using 3rd party extensionsChain, star, and bi-directional replication
Multi-source replication
Source-replica replication
MapReduce infoOffers an API for user-defined Map/Reduce methodsnononoyes
Consistency concepts infoMethods to ensure consistency in a distributed systemImmediate ConsistencyImmediate ConsistencyImmediate ConsistencyImmediate Consistency
Foreign keys infoReferential integritynoyesyesyes
Transaction concepts infoSupport to ensure data integrity after non-atomic manipulations of dataACIDACID infotunable commit protocolACIDACID
Concurrency infoSupport for concurrent manipulation of datayesyes infoMVCCyesyes
Durability infoSupport for making data persistentyesyesyesyes
In-memory capabilities infoIs there an option to define some or all structures to be held in-memory only.yes infoTemporary tablenoyes
User concepts infoAccess controlno infoPlanned for future releasesStandard SQL roles/ privileges, Administrative Usersfine grained access rights according to SQL-standardFine-grained Attribute-Based Access Control (ABAC) in addition to typical coarse-grained Role-Based Access Control (RBAC) according to SQL-standard. Pluggable authentication with supported standards (LDAP, Active Directory, Kerberos)
More information provided by the system vendor
DgraphNuoDBPostgreSQLVirtuoso
Specific characteristicsVirtuoso is a modern multi-model RDBMS for managing data represented as tabular relations...
» more
Competitive advantagesHorizontally scalable transactional graph database with fast arbitrary-depth joins...
» more
Performance & Scale — as exemplified by DBpedia and the LOD Cloud it spawned, i.e.,...
» more
Typical application scenariosUsed for — Analytics/BI Conceptual Data Virtualization Enterprise Knowledge Graphs...
» more
Key customersBroad use across enterprises and governments including — European Union (EU) US Government...
» more
Market metricsLargest installed-base ​of Multi-Model RDBMS for AI-friendly Knowledge Graphs Platform...
» more
Licensing and pricing modelsAvailable in both Commercial Enterprise and Open Source (GPL v2) Editions Feature...
» more

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