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DBMS > Datomic vs. FoundationDB vs. Microsoft SQL Server

System Properties Comparison Datomic vs. FoundationDB vs. Microsoft SQL Server

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Editorial information provided by DB-Engines
NameDatomic  Xexclude from comparisonFoundationDB  Xexclude from comparisonMicrosoft SQL Server  Xexclude from comparison
Created as commercial project in 2013, FoundationDB has been acquired by Apple in March 2015 and was withdrawn from the market. As a consequence, the product was removed from the DB-Engines ranking. In April 2018, Apple open-sourced FoundationDB and it therefore reappears in the ranking.
DescriptionDatomic builds on immutable values, supports point-in-time queries and uses 3rd party systems for durabilityOrdered key-value store. Core features are complimented by layers.Microsofts flagship relational DBMS
Primary database modelRelational DBMSDocument store infosupported via specific layer
Key-value store
Relational DBMS infosupported via specific SQL-layer
Relational DBMS
Secondary database modelsDocument store
Graph DBMS
Spatial DBMS
DB-Engines Ranking infomeasures the popularity of database management systemsranking trend
Trend Chart
Score2.09
Rank#133  Overall
#66  Relational DBMS
Score1.66
Rank#148  Overall
#26  Document stores
#28  Key-value stores
#72  Relational DBMS
Score924.68
Rank#3  Overall
#3  Relational DBMS
Websitewww.datomic.comwww.foundationdb.orgwww.microsoft.com/­en-us/­sql-server
Technical documentationdocs.datomic.comapple.github.io/­foundationdbdocs.microsoft.com/­en-US/­sql/­sql-server
DeveloperCognitectFoundationDBMicrosoft
Initial release201220131989
Current release1.0.6362, January 20226.2.28, November 2020SQL Server 2019, November 2019
License infoCommercial or Open Sourcecommercial infolimited edition freeOpen Source infoApache 2.0commercial inforestricted free version is available
Cloud-based only infoOnly available as a cloud servicenonono
DBaaS offerings (sponsored links) infoDatabase as a Service

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Implementation languageJava, ClojureC++C++
Server operating systemsAll OS with a Java VMLinux
OS X
Windows
Linux
Windows
Data schemeyesschema-free infosome layers support schemasyes
Typing infopredefined data types such as float or dateyesno infosome layers support typingyes
XML support infoSome form of processing data in XML format, e.g. support for XML data structures, and/or support for XPath, XQuery or XSLT.noyes
Secondary indexesyesnoyes
SQL infoSupport of SQLnosupported in specific SQL layer onlyyes
APIs and other access methodsRESTful HTTP APIADO.NET
JDBC
ODBC
OLE DB
Tabular Data Stream (TDS)
Supported programming languagesClojure
Java
.Net
C
C++
Go
Java
JavaScript infoNode.js
PHP
Python
Ruby
Swift
C#
C++
Delphi
Go
Java
JavaScript (Node.js)
PHP
Python
R
Ruby
Visual Basic
Server-side scripts infoStored proceduresyes infoTransaction Functionsin SQL-layer onlyTransact SQL, .NET languages, R, Python and (with SQL Server 2019) Java
TriggersBy using transaction functionsnoyes
Partitioning methods infoMethods for storing different data on different nodesnone infoBut extensive use of caching in the application peersShardingtables can be distributed across several files (horizontal partitioning); sharding through federation
Replication methods infoMethods for redundantly storing data on multiple nodesnone infoBut extensive use of caching in the application peersyesyes, but depending on the SQL-Server Edition
MapReduce infoOffers an API for user-defined Map/Reduce methodsnonono
Consistency concepts infoMethods to ensure consistency in a distributed systemImmediate ConsistencyLinearizable consistencyImmediate Consistency
Foreign keys infoReferential integritynoin SQL-layer onlyyes
Transaction concepts infoSupport to ensure data integrity after non-atomic manipulations of dataACIDACIDACID
Concurrency infoSupport for concurrent manipulation of datayesyesyes
Durability infoSupport for making data persistentyes infousing external storage systems (e.g. Cassandra, DynamoDB, PostgreSQL, Couchbase and others)yesyes
In-memory capabilities infoIs there an option to define some or all structures to be held in-memory only.yes inforecommended only for testing and developmentyes
User concepts infoAccess controlnonofine grained access rights according to SQL-standard

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More resources
DatomicFoundationDBMicrosoft SQL Server
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Recent citations in the news

The Architecture of Datomic
2 November 2012, InfoQ.com

Rich Hickey on Datomic: Datalog, Databases, Persistent Data Structures
4 April 2012, InfoQ.com

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