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DBMS > Citus vs. Microsoft Azure Data Explorer vs. PostgreSQL vs. TimesTen

System Properties Comparison Citus vs. Microsoft Azure Data Explorer vs. PostgreSQL vs. TimesTen

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Editorial information provided by DB-Engines
NameCitus  Xexclude from comparisonMicrosoft Azure Data Explorer  Xexclude from comparisonPostgreSQL  Xexclude from comparisonTimesTen  Xexclude from comparison
DescriptionScalable hybrid operational and analytics RDBMS for big data use cases based on PostgreSQLFully managed big data interactive analytics platformWidely used open source RDBMS infoDeveloped as objectoriented DBMS (Postgres), gradually enhanced with 'standards' like SQLIn-Memory RDBMS compatible to Oracle
Primary database modelRelational DBMSRelational DBMS infocolumn orientedRelational DBMS infowith object oriented extensions, e.g.: user defined types/functions and inheritance. Handling of key/value pairs with hstore module.Relational DBMS
Secondary database modelsDocument storeDocument store infoIf a column is of type dynamic docs.microsoft.com/­en-us/­azure/­kusto/­query/­scalar-data-types/­dynamic then it's possible to add arbitrary JSON documents in this cell
Event Store infothis is the general usage pattern at Microsoft. Billing, Logs, Telemetry events are stored in ADX and the state of an individual entity is defined by the arg_max(timestamps)
Search engine infosupport for complex search expressions docs.microsoft.com/­en-us/­azure/­kusto/­query/­parseoperator FTS, Geospatial docs.microsoft.com/­en-us/­azure/­kusto/­query/­geo-point-to-geohash-function distributed search -> ADX acts as a distributed search engine
Time Series DBMS infosee docs.microsoft.com/­en-us/­azure/­data-explorer/­time-series-analysis
Document store
Spatial DBMS
DB-Engines Ranking infomeasures the popularity of database management systemsranking trend
Trend Chart
Score1.48
Rank#139  Overall
#68  Relational DBMS
Score5.67
Rank#66  Overall
#36  Relational DBMS
Score586.97
Rank#4  Overall
#4  Relational DBMS
Score1.85
Rank#125  Overall
#60  Relational DBMS
Websitewww.citusdata.comazure.microsoft.com/­services/­data-explorerwww.postgresql.orgwww.oracle.com/­database/­technologies/­related/­timesten.html
Technical documentationdocs.citusdata.comdocs.microsoft.com/­en-us/­azure/­data-explorerwww.postgresql.org/­docsdocs.oracle.com/­database/­timesten-18.1
DeveloperMicrosoftPostgreSQL Global Development Group infowww.postgresql.org/­developerOracle, TimesTen Performance Software, HP infooriginally founded in HP Labs it was acquired by Oracle in 2005
Initial release201020191989 info1989: Postgres, 1996: PostgreSQL1998
Current release8.1, December 2018cloud service with continuous releases14.0, September 202111 Release 2 (11.2.2.8.0)
License infoCommercial or Open SourceOpen Source infoAGPL, commercial license also availablecommercialOpen Source infoBSDcommercial
Cloud-based only infoOnly available as a cloud servicenoyesnono
DBaaS offerings (sponsored links) infoDatabase as a Service

Providers of DBaaS offerings, please contact us to be listed.
ScaleGrid for PostgreSQL: Fully managed PostgreSQL hosting on AWS, Azure and DigitalOcean with high availability and SSH access on the #1 multi-cloud DBaaS.
Implementation languageCC
Server operating systemsLinuxhostedFreeBSD
HP-UX
Linux
NetBSD
OpenBSD
OS X
Solaris
Unix
Windows
AIX
HP-UX
Linux
OS X
Solaris SPARC/x86
Windows
Data schemeyesFixed schema with schema-less datatypes (dynamic)yesyes
Typing infopredefined data types such as float or dateyesyes infobool, datetime, dynamic, guid, int, long, real, string, timespan, double: docs.microsoft.com/­en-us/­azure/­kusto/­query/­scalar-data-typesyesyes
XML support infoSome form of processing data in XML format, e.g. support for XML data structures, and/or support for XPath, XQuery or XSLT.yes infospecific XML type available, but no XML query functionalityyesyes infospecific XML-type available, but no XML query functionality.no
Secondary indexesyesall fields are automatically indexedyesyes
SQL infoSupport of SQLyes infostandard, with numerous extensionsKusto Query Language (KQL), SQL subsetyes infostandard with numerous extensionsyes
APIs and other access methodsADO.NET
JDBC
native C library
ODBC
streaming API for large objects
Microsoft SQL Server communication protocol (MS-TDS)
RESTful HTTP API
ADO.NET
JDBC
native C library
ODBC
streaming API for large objects
JDBC
ODBC
ODP.NET
Oracle Call Interface (OCI)
Supported programming languages.Net
C
C++
Delphi
Java
JavaScript (Node.js)
Perl
PHP
Python
Tcl
.Net
Go
Java
JavaScript (Node.js)
PowerShell
Python
R
.Net
C
C++
Delphi
Java infoJDBC
JavaScript (Node.js)
Perl
PHP
Python
Tcl
C
C++
Java
PL/SQL
Server-side scripts infoStored proceduresuser defined functions inforealized in proprietary language PL/pgSQL or with common languages like Perl, Python, Tcl etc.Yes, possible languages: KQL, Python, Ruser defined functions inforealized in proprietary language PL/pgSQL or with common languages like Perl, Python, Tcl etc.PL/SQL
Triggersyesyes infosee docs.microsoft.com/­en-us/­azure/­kusto/­management/­updatepolicyyesno
Partitioning methods infoMethods for storing different data on different nodesShardingSharding infoImplicit feature of the cloud servicepartitioning by range, list and (since PostgreSQL 11) by hashnone
Replication methods infoMethods for redundantly storing data on multiple nodesSource-replica replication infoother methods possible by using 3rd party extensionsyes infoImplicit feature of the cloud service. Replication either local, cross-facility or geo-redundant.Source-replica replication infoother methods possible by using 3rd party extensionsMulti-source replication
Source-replica replication
MapReduce infoOffers an API for user-defined Map/Reduce methodsnononono
Consistency concepts infoMethods to ensure consistency in a distributed systemImmediate ConsistencyEventual Consistency
Immediate Consistency
Immediate ConsistencyImmediate Consistency or Eventual Consistency depending on configuration
Foreign keys infoReferential integrityyesnoyesyes
Transaction concepts infoSupport to ensure data integrity after non-atomic manipulations of dataACIDnoACIDACID
Concurrency infoSupport for concurrent manipulation of datayesyesyesyes
Durability infoSupport for making data persistentyesyesyesyes infoby means of logfiles and checkpoints
In-memory capabilities infoIs there an option to define some or all structures to be held in-memory only.nononoyes
User concepts infoAccess controlfine grained access rights according to SQL-standardAzure Active Directory Authenticationfine grained access rights according to SQL-standardfine grained access rights according to SQL-standard
More information provided by the system vendor
CitusMicrosoft Azure Data ExplorerPostgreSQLTimesTen
Specific characteristicsAzure Data Explorer is a fast and highly scalable data exploration service for log...
» more
Competitive advantagesKusto Query Language (innovative query language, optimized for high performance data...
» more
Typical application scenariosIoT applications IoT devices generate billions of sensor readings. Normalizing and...
» more
Key customersMicrosoft, DocuSign, Taboola, Bosch, Siemens Healthineers, Bühler, Ecolab, Zoomd
» more
Market metricsAzure Data Explorer is the data service for Azure Monitor, Azure Time Series Insights,...
» more

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More resources
CitusMicrosoft Azure Data ExplorerPostgreSQLTimesTen
DB-Engines blog posts

The Inexorable Rise of PostgreSQL
24 September 2021,  Matt Yonkovit, Percona (sponsor) 

PostgreSQL is the DBMS of the Year 2020
4 January 2021, Paul Andlinger, Matthias Gelbmann

PostgreSQL is the DBMS of the Year 2018
2 January 2019, Paul Andlinger, Matthias Gelbmann

show all

Conferences and events

Postgres Build 2021
Free Virtual Event, 30 November 2021 - 1 December 2021

Recent citations in the news

Testing times: Microsoft gets PostgreSQL on Azure a day after GA
4 October 2021, The Register

PostgreSQL 14 Is Here - A Look At Its Past And Future
1 October 2021, iProgrammer

How to Use Citus to Shard Postgres, for Performance & Scale - Microsoft
16 September 2021, Channel 9

Microsoft buys Citus Data
24 January 2019, ZDNet

Microsoft Expands Azure PostgreSQL Moxy Through Citus Data Purchase
30 January 2019, Data Center Knowledge

provided by Google News

Improving Azure security with KQL: Log analytics architecture
4 October 2021, TechGenix

Get Started with Accessing Azure Data Explorer using Apache Spark for Azure Synapse Analytics - Microsoft
8 April 2021, Channel 9

Azure Data Explorer gets new engine, numerous enhancements and Synapse integration
14 October 2020, ZDNet

AMD Boosts Microsoft Azure Data Explorer Performance
16 October 2020, SDxCentral

Top 9 Data Modeling Tools & Software 2021
6 October 2021, IT Business Edge

provided by Google News

Google Opens Up Spanner Database With PostgreSQL Interface
13 October 2021, The Next Platform

PostgreSQL 14 improves open source database performance
30 September 2021, TechTarget

PostgreSQL 14 brings performance boosts
1 October 2021, InfoWorld

Open-source veteran PostgreSQL emits release 14: Tweaked, scalable, and ready to get heavy
1 October 2021, The Register

Postgresql 14 Is Now Available, Check The New Features
6 October 2021, Analytics India Magazine

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25 January 2012, Business Insider

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