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DBMS > Citus vs. Grakn vs. GraphDB vs. JanusGraph vs. SQLite

System Properties Comparison Citus vs. Grakn vs. GraphDB vs. JanusGraph vs. SQLite

Editorial information provided by DB-Engines
NameCitus  Xexclude from comparisonGrakn  Xexclude from comparisonGraphDB infoformer name: OWLIM  Xexclude from comparisonJanusGraph infosuccessor of Titan  Xexclude from comparisonSQLite  Xexclude from comparison
DescriptionScalable hybrid operational and analytics RDBMS for big data use cases based on PostgreSQLGrakn is a distributed, hyper-relational database for managing complex data that serves as a knowledge base for cognitive/AI systems.Enterprise RDF and graph database with efficient reasoning, cluster and external index synchronization supportA Graph DBMS optimized for distributed clusters infoIt was forked from the latest code base of Titan in January 2017Widely used in-process RDBMS
Primary database modelRelational DBMSGraph DBMS
Relational DBMS infoOften described as a 'hyper-relational' database, since it implements the 'Entity-Relationship Paradigm' to manage complex data structures and ontologies.
Graph DBMS
RDF store
Graph DBMSRelational DBMS
Secondary database modelsDocument store
DB-Engines Ranking infomeasures the popularity of database management systemsranking trend
Trend Chart
Score0.98
Rank#147  Overall
#72  Relational DBMS
Score0.42
Rank#221  Overall
#17  Graph DBMS
#104  Relational DBMS
Score1.16
Rank#139  Overall
#8  Graph DBMS
#5  RDF stores
Score1.78
Rank#120  Overall
#7  Graph DBMS
Score122.19
Rank#9  Overall
#6  Relational DBMS
Websitewww.citusdata.comgrakn.aigraphdb.ontotext.comjanusgraph.orgwww.sqlite.org
Technical documentationdocs.citusdata.comdev.grakn.ai/­docsgraphdb.ontotext.com/­documentationdocs.janusgraph.orgwww.sqlite.org/­docs.html
DeveloperGrakn LabsOntotextLinux Foundation; originally developed as Titan by AureliusDwayne Richard Hipp
Initial release20102016200020172000
Current release8.1, December 20181.6.2, January 20208.8, January 20190.5.0, March 20203.31.0, January 2020
License infoCommercial or Open SourceOpen Source infoAGPL, commercial license also availableOpen Source infoGPL Version 3, commercial licenses availablecommercial infolimited edition freeOpen Source infoApache 2.0Open Source infoPublic Domain
Cloud-based only infoOnly available as a cloud servicenonono infoNamed S4, Ontotext provides a semantic graph database based on GraphDB in the cloud.nono
DBaaS offerings (sponsored links) infoDatabase as a Service

Providers of DBaaS offerings, please contact us to be listed.
Implementation languageCJavaJavaJavaC
Server operating systemsLinuxLinux
OS X
Windows
All OS with a Java VM
Linux
OS X
Windows
Linux
OS X
Unix
Windows
server-less
Data schemeyesyesschema-free and OWL/RDFS-schema supportyesyes infodynamic column types
Typing infopredefined data types such as float or dateyesyesyesyesyes infonot rigid because of 'dynamic typing' concept.
XML support infoSome form of processing data in XML format, e.g. support for XML data structures, and/or support for XPath, XQuery or XSLT.yes infospecific XML type available, but no XML query functionalitynononono
Secondary indexesyesyesyes, supports real-time synchronization and indexing in SOLR/Elastic search/Lucene and GeoSPARQL geometry data indexesyesyes
SQL infoSupport of SQLyes infostandard, with numerous extensionsnoSPARQL is used as query languagenoyes infoSQL-92 is not fully supported
APIs and other access methodsADO.NET
JDBC
native C library
ODBC
streaming API for large objects
console (shell)
gRPC protocol
Workbase (visualisation software)
GeoSPARQL
Java API
RDF4J API
RIO
Sail API
Sesame REST HTTP Protocol
SPARQL 1.1
Java API
TinkerPop Blueprints
TinkerPop Frames
TinkerPop Gremlin
TinkerPop Rexster
ADO.NET infoinofficial driver
JDBC infoinofficial driver
ODBC infoinofficial driver
Supported programming languages.Net
C
C++
Delphi
Java
JavaScript (Node.js)
Perl
PHP
Python
Tcl
All JVM based languages
Groovy
Java
JavaScript (Node.js)
Python
Scala
.Net
C#
Clojure
Java
JavaScript (Node.js)
PHP
Python
Ruby
Scala
Clojure
Java
Python
Actionscript
Ada
Basic
C
C#
C++
D
Delphi
Forth
Fortran
Haskell
Java
JavaScript
Lisp
Lua
MatLab
Objective-C
OCaml
Perl
PHP
PL/SQL
Python
R
Ruby
Scala
Scheme
Smalltalk
Tcl
Server-side scripts infoStored proceduresuser defined functions inforealized in proprietary language PL/pgSQL or with common languages like Perl, Python, Tcl etc.noJava Server Pluginyesno
Triggersyesnonoyesyes
Partitioning methods infoMethods for storing different data on different nodesShardingSharding infoby using Cassandranoneyes infodepending on the used storage backend (e.g. Cassandra, HBase, BerkeleyDB)none
Replication methods infoMethods for redundantly storing data on multiple nodesMaster-slave replication infoother methods possible by using 3rd party extensionsMaster-master replication infoby using CassandraMaster-master replicationyesnone
MapReduce infoOffers an API for user-defined Map/Reduce methodsnoyes infoby using Apache Kafka and Apache Zookeepernoyes infovia Faunus, a graph analytics engineno
Consistency concepts infoMethods to ensure consistency in a distributed systemImmediate ConsistencyImmediate ConsistencyImmediate Consistency, Eventual consistency (configurable in cluster mode per master or individual client request)Eventual Consistency
Immediate Consistency
Foreign keys infoReferential integrityyesno infosubstituted by the relationship featureyes infoConstraint checkingyes infoRelationships in graphsyes
Transaction concepts infoSupport to ensure data integrity after non-atomic manipulations of dataACIDACIDACIDACIDACID
Concurrency infoSupport for concurrent manipulation of datayesyesyesyesyes infovia file-system locks
Durability infoSupport for making data persistentyesyesyesyes infoSupports various storage backends: Cassandra, HBase, Berkeley DB, Akiban, Hazelcastyes
In-memory capabilities infoIs there an option to define some or all structures to be held in-memory only.nonoyes
User concepts infoAccess controlfine grained access rights according to SQL-standardyes infoat REST API level; other APIs in progressyesUser authentification and security via Rexster Graph Serverno
More information provided by the system vendor
CitusGraknGraphDB infoformer name: OWLIMJanusGraph infosuccessor of TitanSQLite
Specific characteristicsGrakn is the knowledge graph to organise complex networks of data and making it queryable,...
» more
GraphDB Enterprise is a high-performance semantic repository created by Ontotext....
» more
Competitive advantagesExpressive and flexible data model: The meta-schema of Grakn allows for modelling...
» more
GraphDB allows you to link text and data in big knowledge graphs. It’s easy to experiment...
» more
Typical application scenariosLife sciences : Grakn makes working with biological data much easier and accelerates...
» more
Metadata enrichment and management, linked open data publishing, semantic inferencing...
» more
Key customersBBC, Press Association, Financial Times, DK, Euromoney, The British Museum, Getty...
» more
Market metricsGraphDB is the most utilized semantic triplestore for mission-critical enterprise...
» more
Licensing and pricing modelsAGPL and Commercial . The commercial license is priced based on cluster resources...
» more
GraphDB-Free is free to use. SE and Enterprise are licensed per CPU-Core used. Perpetual...
» more
News

Grakn Cosmos 2020: A Recap
25 February 2020

Moving from Slack to Discord
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14 August 2019

Unsolved Machine Learning Problems That You Can Solve
9 July 2019

Drug Discovery Knowledge Graphs
7 June 2019

Ontotext’s GraphDB Builds a Thriving Community of Expert Followers
2 April 2020

Ontotext Knowledge Graph Platform: The Modern Way of Building Smart Enterprise Applications
19 March 2020

How Pharma Companies Can Scale Up Their Knowledge Discovery with Semantic Similarity Search 
6 March 2020

Crafting a Knowledge Graph: The Semantic Data Modeling Way
20 February 2020

How Computer Vision Technology Can Bring Smart Surveillance to Retail    
6 February 2020

We invite representatives of system vendors to contact us for updating and extending the system information,
and for displaying vendor-provided information such as key customers, competitive advantages and market metrics.

Related products and services
3rd partiesNavicat for SQLite is a powerful and comprehensive SQLite GUI that provides a complete set of functions for database management and development.
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We invite representatives of vendors of related products to contact us for presenting information about their offerings here.

More resources
CitusGraknGraphDB infoformer name: OWLIMJanusGraph infosuccessor of TitanSQLite
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Conferences and events

GraphDB 9.1: Knowledge Graphs with Data Provenance
Webinar, 2 March 2020 (finished)

GraphDB Fundamentals: Adding Meaning to Your Data
Webinar, 4pm GMT, 8am PST, 5pm CET, 25 March 2020 (finished)

Recent citations in the news

Microsoft acquires Citus Data for its open source PostgreSQL tool
25 January 2019, VentureBeat

Hadoop Big Data Analytics Market Continuous Excellent Growth |
26 March 2020, openPR

Citus Data Announces Citus Cloud Database Support for HIPAA and SOC 2 Type 2 Compliance
13 November 2018, Business Wire

Microsoft Expands Azure PostgreSQL Moxy Through Citus Data Purchase
30 January 2019, Data Center Knowledge

Microsoft rolls out new performance-scaling features for Azure databases, including serverless Azure SQL
6 May 2019, GeekWire

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Get Started With GRAKN.AI
10 March 2017, DZone News

GRAKN.AI: How Haikal Pribadi went from being a refugee to building a database for AI systems
26 October 2017, YourStory.com

What Is an Ontology?
15 March 2017, DZone News

15 Machine Learning Companies To Watch In Europe
27 November 2018, Forbes

Oracle launches startup cloud accelerator in Bristol
20 September 2017, Cloud Pro

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It's just semantics: Bulgarian software dev Ontotext squeezes out GraphDB 9.1
15 January 2020, The Register

GraphDB Goes Open Source
27 January 2020, iProgrammer

Ontotext's GraphDB 9.0 Open-sources its Front-end and Engine Plugins to Empower Knowledge Graph Solutions
3 October 2019, PRNewswire

Ontotext's GraphDB 8.10 Makes Knowledge Graph Experience Faster and Richer
13 June 2019, Yahoo Finance

Ontotext Platform 3.0 for Enterprise Knowledge Graphs Released
16 December 2019, PRNewswire

provided by Google News

What & why: Graph machine learning in distributed systems
16 March 2020, Ericsson

JanusGraph Picks Up Where TitanDB Left Off
13 January 2017, Datanami

Comcast, FireEye, Numberly Among Winners of 2019 Scylla User Awards
6 November 2019, GlobeNewswire

The year of the graph: Getting graphic, going native, reshaping the landscape
8 January 2018, ZDNet

Benchmarking Graph Analytics Systems: TigerGraph, Neo4j, Neptune, JanusGraph, and ArangoDB
8 May 2019, Database Trends and Applications

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Fedora Looking To Transition The RPM Database From Berkeley DB To SQLite
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