DB-EnginesInfluxDB: Focus on building software with an easy-to-use serverless, scalable time series platformEnglish
Deutsch
Knowledge Base of Relational and NoSQL Database Management Systemsprovided by solid IT

DBMS > Cassandra vs. Neo4j vs. PostgreSQL

System Properties Comparison Cassandra vs. Neo4j vs. PostgreSQL

Please select another system to include it in the comparison.

Editorial information provided by DB-Engines
NameCassandra  Xexclude from comparisonNeo4j  Xexclude from comparisonPostgreSQL  Xexclude from comparison
DescriptionWide-column store based on ideas of BigTable and DynamoDB infoOptimized for write accessScalable, ACID-compliant graph database designed with a high-performance distributed cluster architecture, available in self-hosted and cloud offeringsWidely used open source RDBMS infoDeveloped as objectoriented DBMS (Postgres), gradually enhanced with 'standards' like SQL
Primary database modelWide column storeGraph DBMSRelational DBMS infowith object oriented extensions, e.g.: user defined types/functions and inheritance. Handling of key/value pairs with hstore module.
Secondary database modelsVector DBMS infostarting with release V5Document store
Graph DBMS infowith Apache Age
Spatial DBMS
Vector DBMS infowith pgvector extension
DB-Engines Ranking infomeasures the popularity of database management systemsranking trend
Trend Chart
Score104.59
Rank#12  Overall
#1  Wide column stores
Score44.36
Rank#23  Overall
#1  Graph DBMS
Score634.91
Rank#4  Overall
#4  Relational DBMS
Websitecassandra.apache.orgneo4j.comwww.postgresql.org
Technical documentationcassandra.apache.org/­doc/­latestneo4j.com/­docswww.postgresql.org/­docs
DeveloperApache Software Foundation infoApache top level project, originally developped by FacebookNeo4j, Inc.PostgreSQL Global Development Group infowww.postgresql.org/­developer
Initial release200820071989 info1989: Postgres, 1996: PostgreSQL
Current release4.1.3, July 20235.17, February 202416.2, February 2024
License infoCommercial or Open SourceOpen Source infoApache version 2Open Source infoGPL version3, commercial licenses availableOpen Source infoBSD
Cloud-based only infoOnly available as a cloud servicenonono
DBaaS offerings (sponsored links) infoDatabase as a Service

Providers of DBaaS offerings, please contact us to be listed.
Astra DB: Multi-cloud DBaaS built on Apache Cassandra.Neo4j Aura: Neo4j’s fully managed cloud service: The zero-admin, always-on graph database for cloud developers.Aiven for PostgreSQL: Fully managed PostgreSQL for developers with 70+ extensions and flexible orchestration tools.
Implementation languageJavaJava, ScalaC
Server operating systemsBSD
Linux
OS X
Windows
Linux infoCan also be used server-less as embedded Java database.
OS X
Solaris
Windows
FreeBSD
HP-UX
Linux
NetBSD
OpenBSD
OS X
Solaris
Unix
Windows
Data schemeschema-freeschema-free and schema-optionalyes
Typing infopredefined data types such as float or dateyesyesyes
XML support infoSome form of processing data in XML format, e.g. support for XML data structures, and/or support for XPath, XQuery or XSLT.noyes infospecific XML-type available, but no XML query functionality.
Secondary indexesrestricted infoonly equality queries, not always the best performing solutionyes infopluggable indexing subsystem, by default Apache Luceneyes
SQL infoSupport of SQLSQL-like SELECT, DML and DDL statements (CQL)noyes infostandard with numerous extensions
APIs and other access methodsProprietary protocol infoCQL (Cassandra Query Language, an SQL-like language)
Thrift
Bolt protocol
Cypher query language
Java API
Neo4j-OGM infoObject Graph Mapper
RESTful HTTP API
Spring Data Neo4j
TinkerPop 3
ADO.NET
JDBC
native C library
ODBC
streaming API for large objects
Supported programming languagesC#
C++
Clojure
Erlang
Go
Haskell
Java
JavaScript infoNode.js
Perl
PHP
Python
Ruby
Scala
.Net
Clojure
Elixir
Go
Groovy
Haskell
Java
JavaScript
Perl
PHP
Python
Ruby
Scala
.Net
C
C++
Delphi
Java infoJDBC
JavaScript (Node.js)
Perl
PHP
Python
Tcl
Server-side scripts infoStored proceduresnoyes infoUser defined Procedures and Functionsuser defined functions inforealized in proprietary language PL/pgSQL or with common languages like Perl, Python, Tcl etc.
Triggersyesyes infovia event handleryes
Partitioning methods infoMethods for storing different data on different nodesSharding infono "single point of failure"yes using Neo4j Fabricpartitioning by range, list and (since PostgreSQL 11) by hash
Replication methods infoMethods for redundantly storing data on multiple nodesselectable replication factor infoRepresentation of geographical distribution of servers is possibleCausal Clustering using Raft protocol infoavailable in in Enterprise Version onlySource-replica replication infoother methods possible by using 3rd party extensions
MapReduce infoOffers an API for user-defined Map/Reduce methodsyesnono
Consistency concepts infoMethods to ensure consistency in a distributed systemEventual Consistency
Immediate Consistency infocan be individually decided for each write operation
Causal and Eventual Consistency configurable in Causal Cluster setup
Immediate Consistency in stand-alone mode
Immediate Consistency
Foreign keys infoReferential integritynoyes infoRelationships in graphsyes
Transaction concepts infoSupport to ensure data integrity after non-atomic manipulations of datano infoAtomicity and isolation are supported for single operationsACIDACID
Concurrency infoSupport for concurrent manipulation of datayesyesyes
Durability infoSupport for making data persistentyesyesyes
In-memory capabilities infoIs there an option to define some or all structures to be held in-memory only.nono
User concepts infoAccess controlAccess rights for users can be defined per objectUsers, roles and permissions. Pluggable authentication with supported standards (LDAP, Active Directory, Kerberos)fine grained access rights according to SQL-standard
More information provided by the system vendor
CassandraNeo4jPostgreSQL
Specific characteristicsApache Cassandra is the leading NoSQL, distributed database management system, well...
» more
Neo4j delivers graph technology that has been battle tested for performance and scale...
» more
Competitive advantagesNo single point of failure ensures 100% availability . Operational simplicity for...
» more
Neo4j is the market leader, graph database category creator, and the most widely...
» more
Typical application scenariosInternet of Things (IOT), fraud detection applications, recommendation engines, product...
» more
Real-Time Recommendations Master Data Management Identity and Access Management Network...
» more
Key customersApple, Netflix, Uber, ING,, Intuit,Fidelity, NY Times, Outbrain, BazaarVoice, Best...
» more
Over 800 commercial customers and over 4300 startups use Neo4j. Flagship customers...
» more
Market metricsCassandra is used by 40% of the Fortune 100.
» more
Neo4j boasts the world's largest graph database ecosystem with more than 140 million...
» more
Licensing and pricing modelsApache license  Pricing for commercial distributions provided by DataStax and available...
» more
GPL v3 license that can be used all the places where you might use MySQL. Neo4j Commercial...
» more
News

Using GenAI to Find a Needle with Haystack and Astra DB
29 February 2024

GenAI Data Ingestion Just Got Easier with Unstructured.io and Astra DB
28 February 2024

Introducing Mission Control: Less Data Ops, More DevOps
27 February 2024

RAGStack, the Ready-Made RAG Solution, Is Now Integrated with LlamaIndex
20 February 2024

Astra DB’s Third “Serverless-versary”
6 February 2024

This Week in Neo4j: GraphAcademy, Algorithms, GenAI, Knowledge Graphs and more
2 March 2024

What Is Retrieval-Augmented Generation (RAG)? — Overcoming the Limitations of Fine-Tuning & Vector-Only RAG
27 February 2024

This Week in Neo4j: Data Journalism, LLMs, Object Mapping, Cypher and more
17 February 2024

This Week in Neo4j: LLMs, Vectors, Metadata Management, Streamlit and more
10 February 2024

This Week in Neo4j: Embeddings, Algorithms, Docker, LangChain and more
3 February 2024

We invite representatives of system vendors to contact us for updating and extending the system information,
and for displaying vendor-provided information such as key customers, competitive advantages and market metrics.

Related products and services
3rd partiesCData: Connect to Big Data & NoSQL through standard Drivers.
» more

Cassandra Forward event: Want to level up your Cassandra game? Watch now replays of the March 2023 sessions.
» more
Redgate webinars: A series of key topics for new PostgreSQL users.
» more

SharePlex is the reliable and affordable data replication solution for PostgreSQL migrations, high availability and more.
» more

Navicat for PostgreSQL is an easy-to-use graphical tool for PostgreSQL database development.
» more

pgDash: In-Depth PostgreSQL Monitoring.
» more

Instaclustr: Fully Hosted & Managed PostgreSQL
» more

Fujitsu Enterprise Postgres: An Enterprise Grade PostgreSQL with the flexibility of a hybrid cloud solution combined with industry leading security, availability and performance.
» more

Datasentinel: Platform for Monitoring and Analyzing the performance problems of your PostgreSQL Clusters
» more

Navicat Monitor is a safe, simple and agentless remote server monitoring tool for PostgreSQL and many other database management systems.
» more

Aiven for PostgreSQL: Fully managed PostgreSQL for developers with 70+ extensions and flexible orchestration tools.
» more

Timescale: Calling all PostgreSQL users – the 2023 State of PostgreSQL survey is now open! Share your favorite extensions, preferred frameworks, community experiences, and more. Take the survey today!
» more

We invite representatives of vendors of related products to contact us for presenting information about their offerings here.

More resources
CassandraNeo4jPostgreSQL
DB-Engines blog posts

Cassandra keeps climbing the ranks of the DB-Engines Ranking
3 May 2016, Matthias Gelbmann

Oracle is the DBMS of the Year
5 January 2016, Paul Andlinger, Matthias Gelbmann

Winners, losers and an attractive newcomer in Novembers DB-Engines ranking
2 November 2015, Paul Andlinger

show all

Applying Graph Analytics to Game of Thrones
12 June 2019, Amy Hodler & Mark Needham, Neo4j (guest author)

MySQL, PostgreSQL and Redis are the winners of the March ranking
2 March 2016, Paul Andlinger

The openCypher Project: Help Shape the SQL for Graphs
22 December 2015, Emil Eifrem (guest author)

show all

PostgreSQL is the DBMS of the Year 2023
2 January 2024, Matthias Gelbmann, Paul Andlinger

Snowflake is the DBMS of the Year 2022, defending the title from last year
3 January 2023, Matthias Gelbmann, Paul Andlinger

Snowflake is the DBMS of the Year 2021
3 January 2022, Paul Andlinger, Matthias Gelbmann

show all

Recent citations in the news

What Is Cassandra? Working, Features, and Uses
17 August 2023, Spiceworks News and Insights

How Uber Optimized Cassandra Operations At Scale
20 July 2023, Uber

Cassandra is the “best f*cking database for gen AI,” says DataStax CEO
13 December 2023, VentureBeat

Cassandra: Highly Scalable Database Out of the Box
27 December 2023, hackernoon.com

Microsoft extends life support for aging Apache Cassandra 3.11 database
10 October 2023, The Register

provided by Google News

IDJC Receives Neo4j Research Grant to Track 2024 Campaign Misinformation — Syracuse University News
8 February 2024, Syracuse University News

Neo4j Is Planning IPO on Nasdaq, Largest Owner Greenbridge Says
15 February 2024, Yahoo Finance

Leveraging Neo4j and Amazon Bedrock for an Explainable, Secure, and Connected Generative AI Solution | Amazon ...
10 November 2023, AWS Blog

Neo4j Signs Strategic Collaboration Agreement with AWS to Enhance Generative AI Results While Addressing AI ...
21 November 2023, PR Newswire

Neo4j and AWS team up to enhance generative AI applications with graph database technology
21 November 2023, SiliconANGLE News

provided by Google News

Best of Makers: PostgreSQL Takes a New Turn
22 February 2024, The New Stack

AWS announces Amazon Aurora PostgreSQL integration with Amazon Bedrock for Generative AI
21 December 2023, AWS Blog

Blog Theme - Details
14 November 2023, Oracle

MongoDB vs PostgreSQL: A Comparison of Databases [2024]
27 February 2024, Simplilearn

Oracle Introduces PostgreSQL Running Native on OCI
17 December 2023, IDC

provided by Google News



Share this page

Featured Products

Datastax Astra logo

Bring all your data to Generative AI applications with vector search enabled by the most scalable
vector database available.
Try for Free

Milvus logo

The open source vector database for GenAI.
Try Managed Milvus Free

AllegroGraph logo

Graph Database Leader for AI Knowledge Graph Applications - The Most Secure Graph Database Available.
Free Download

Ontotext logo

GraphDB allows you to link diverse data, index it for semantic search and enrich it via text analysis to build big knowledge graphs. Get it free.

Neo4j logo

See for yourself how a graph database can make your life easier.
Use Neo4j online for free.

Present your product here