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DBMS > Cassandra vs. Impala vs. Microsoft SQL Server vs. ToroDB

System Properties Comparison Cassandra vs. Impala vs. Microsoft SQL Server vs. ToroDB

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Editorial information provided by DB-Engines
NameCassandra  Xexclude from comparisonImpala  Xexclude from comparisonMicrosoft SQL Server  Xexclude from comparisonToroDB  Xexclude from comparison
DescriptionWide-column store based on ideas of BigTable and DynamoDB infoOptimized for write accessAnalytic DBMS for HadoopMicrosofts flagship relational DBMSA MongoDB-compatible JSON document store, built on top of PostgreSQL
Primary database modelWide column storeRelational DBMSRelational DBMSDocument store
Secondary database modelsDocument storeDocument store
Graph DBMS
Spatial DBMS
DB-Engines Ranking infomeasures the popularity of database management systemsranking trend
Trend Chart
Score117.95
Rank#11  Overall
#1  Wide column stores
Score17.68
Rank#40  Overall
#25  Relational DBMS
Score924.68
Rank#3  Overall
#3  Relational DBMS
Score0.17
Rank#327  Overall
#46  Document stores
Websitecassandra.apache.orgwww.cloudera.com/­products/­open-source/­apache-hadoop/­impala.htmlwww.microsoft.com/­en-us/­sql-serverwww.torodb.com
Technical documentationcassandra.apache.org/­doc/­latestdocs.cloudera.com/­documentation/­enterprise/­latest/­topics/­impala.htmldocs.microsoft.com/­en-US/­sql/­sql-serverwww.torodb.com/­stampede/­docs
DeveloperApache Software Foundation infoApache top level project, originally developped by FacebookClouderaMicrosoft8Kdata
Initial release2008201319892016
Current release4.0.6, August 20224.0.0, July 2021SQL Server 2019, November 2019
License infoCommercial or Open SourceOpen Source infoApache version 2Open Source infoApache Version 2commercial inforestricted free version is availableOpen Source infoAGPL-V3
Cloud-based only infoOnly available as a cloud servicenononono
DBaaS offerings (sponsored links) infoDatabase as a Service

Providers of DBaaS offerings, please contact us to be listed.
  • Aiven for Apache Cassandra: Fully managed, open source NoSQL database specifically designed to be highly available, performant, and scalable.
  • Astra DB: Multi-cloud DBaaS built on Apache Cassandra.
Implementation languageJavaC++C++Java
Server operating systemsBSD
Linux
OS X
Windows
LinuxLinux
Windows
All OS with a Java 7 VM
Data schemeschema-freeyesyesschema-free
Typing infopredefined data types such as float or dateyesyesyesyes infostring, integer, double, boolean, date, object_id
XML support infoSome form of processing data in XML format, e.g. support for XML data structures, and/or support for XPath, XQuery or XSLT.nonoyesno
Secondary indexesrestricted infoonly equality queries, not always the best performing solutionyesyes
SQL infoSupport of SQLSQL-like SELECT, DML and DDL statements (CQL)SQL-like DML and DDL statementsyes
APIs and other access methodsProprietary protocol infoCQL (Cassandra Query Language, an SQL-like language)
Thrift
JDBC
ODBC
ADO.NET
JDBC
ODBC
OLE DB
Tabular Data Stream (TDS)
Supported programming languagesC#
C++
Clojure
Erlang
Go
Haskell
Java
JavaScript infoNode.js
Perl
PHP
Python
Ruby
Scala
All languages supporting JDBC/ODBCC#
C++
Delphi
Go
Java
JavaScript (Node.js)
PHP
Python
R
Ruby
Visual Basic
Server-side scripts infoStored proceduresnoyes infouser defined functions and integration of map-reduceTransact SQL, .NET languages, R, Python and (with SQL Server 2019) Java
Triggersyesnoyesno
Partitioning methods infoMethods for storing different data on different nodesSharding infono "single point of failure"Shardingtables can be distributed across several files (horizontal partitioning); sharding through federationSharding
Replication methods infoMethods for redundantly storing data on multiple nodesselectable replication factor infoRepresentation of geographical distribution of servers is possibleselectable replication factoryes, but depending on the SQL-Server EditionSource-replica replication
MapReduce infoOffers an API for user-defined Map/Reduce methodsyesyes infoquery execution via MapReduceno
Consistency concepts infoMethods to ensure consistency in a distributed systemEventual Consistency
Immediate Consistency infocan be individually decided for each write operation
Eventual ConsistencyImmediate ConsistencyEventual Consistency
Immediate Consistency
Foreign keys infoReferential integritynonoyesno
Transaction concepts infoSupport to ensure data integrity after non-atomic manipulations of datano infoAtomicity and isolation are supported for single operationsnoACIDno
Concurrency infoSupport for concurrent manipulation of datayesyesyesyes
Durability infoSupport for making data persistentyesyesyesyes
In-memory capabilities infoIs there an option to define some or all structures to be held in-memory only.nonoyes
User concepts infoAccess controlAccess rights for users can be defined per objectAccess rights for users, groups and roles infobased on Apache Sentry and Kerberosfine grained access rights according to SQL-standardAccess rights for users and roles
More information provided by the system vendor
CassandraImpalaMicrosoft SQL ServerToroDB
Specific characteristicsApache Cassandra is the leading NoSQL, distributed database management system, well...
» more
Competitive advantagesNo single point of failure ensures 100% availability . Operational simplicity for...
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Typical application scenariosInternet of Things (IOT), fraud detection applications, recommendation engines, product...
» more
Key customersApple, Netflix, Uber, ING,, Intuit,Fidelity, NY Times, Outbrain, BazaarVoice, Best...
» more
Market metricsCassandra is used by 40% of the Fortune 100.
» more
Licensing and pricing modelsApache license  Pricing for commercial distributions provided by DataStax and available...
» more
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We invite representatives of system vendors to contact us for updating and extending the system information,
and for displaying vendor-provided information such as key customers, competitive advantages and market metrics.

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3rd partiesDataStax Cassandra: Zero touch operations, configuration and management with true autoscaling
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Instaclustr: Hosted & Managed Apache Cassandra as a Service
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SQL Complete: An advanced IntelliSense-style code completion add-in for SSMS and Visual Studio. Write, beautify, refactor your SQL code and give your productivity a dramatic boost.
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We invite representatives of vendors of related products to contact us for presenting information about their offerings here.

More resources
CassandraImpalaMicrosoft SQL ServerToroDB
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Conferences and events

Cassandra Day London
London, UK, 11 October 2022

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