DB-EnginesInfluxDB: Focus on building software with an easy-to-use serverless, scalable time series platformEnglish
Deutsch
Knowledge Base of Relational and NoSQL Database Management Systemsprovided by solid IT

DBMS > Cassandra vs. HugeGraph vs. Microsoft SQL Server vs. Oracle vs. Postgres-XL

System Properties Comparison Cassandra vs. HugeGraph vs. Microsoft SQL Server vs. Oracle vs. Postgres-XL

Editorial information provided by DB-Engines
NameCassandra  Xexclude from comparisonHugeGraph  Xexclude from comparisonMicrosoft SQL Server  Xexclude from comparisonOracle  Xexclude from comparisonPostgres-XL  Xexclude from comparison
DescriptionWide-column store based on ideas of BigTable and DynamoDB infoOptimized for write accessA fast-speed and highly-scalable Graph DBMSMicrosofts flagship relational DBMSWidely used RDBMSBased on PostgreSQL enhanced with MPP and write-scale-out cluster features
Primary database modelWide column storeGraph DBMSRelational DBMSRelational DBMSRelational DBMS
Secondary database modelsDocument store
Graph DBMS
Spatial DBMS
Document store
Graph DBMS infowith Oracle Spatial and Graph
RDF store infowith Oracle Spatial and Graph
Spatial DBMS infowith Oracle Spatial and Graph
Document store
Spatial DBMS
DB-Engines Ranking infomeasures the popularity of database management systemsranking trend
Trend Chart
Score118.15
Rank#11  Overall
#1  Wide column stores
Score0.22
Rank#283  Overall
#21  Graph DBMS
Score944.96
Rank#3  Overall
#3  Relational DBMS
Score1260.80
Rank#1  Overall
#1  Relational DBMS
Score0.66
Rank#216  Overall
#103  Relational DBMS
Websitecassandra.apache.orggithub.com/­hugegraphwww.microsoft.com/­en-us/­sql-serverwww.oracle.com/­databasewww.postgres-xl.org
Technical documentationcassandra.apache.org/­doc/­latesthugegraph.github.io/­hugegraph-docdocs.microsoft.com/­en-US/­sql/­sql-serverdocs.oracle.com/­en/­databasewww.postgres-xl.org/­documentation
DeveloperApache Software Foundation infoApache top level project, originally developped by FacebookBaiduMicrosoftOracle
Initial release20082018198919802014 infosince 2012, originally named StormDB
Current release4.0.5, July 20220.9SQL Server 2019, November 201919c, February 201910 R1, October 2018
License infoCommercial or Open SourceOpen Source infoApache version 2Open Source infoApache Version 2.0commercial inforestricted free version is availablecommercial inforestricted free version is availableOpen Source infoMozilla public license
Cloud-based only infoOnly available as a cloud servicenonononono
DBaaS offerings (sponsored links) infoDatabase as a Service

Providers of DBaaS offerings, please contact us to be listed.
  • Astra DB: Multi-cloud DBaaS built on Apache Cassandra.
  • Aiven for Apache Cassandra: Fully managed, open source NoSQL database specifically designed to be highly available, performant, and scalable.
Implementation languageJavaJavaC++C and C++C
Server operating systemsBSD
Linux
OS X
Windows
Linux
macOS
Unix
Linux
Windows
AIX
HP-UX
Linux
OS X
Solaris
Windows
z/OS
Linux
macOS
Data schemeschema-freeyesyesyes infoSchemaless in JSON and XML columnsyes
Typing infopredefined data types such as float or dateyesyesyesyesyes
XML support infoSome form of processing data in XML format, e.g. support for XML data structures, and/or support for XPath, XQuery or XSLT.nonoyesyesyes infoXML type, but no XML query functionality
Secondary indexesrestricted infoonly equality queries, not always the best performing solutionyes infoalso supports composite index and range indexyesyesyes
SQL infoSupport of SQLSQL-like SELECT, DML and DDL statements (CQL)noyesyes infowith proprietary extensionsyes infodistributed, parallel query execution
APIs and other access methodsProprietary protocol infoCQL (Cassandra Query Language, an SQL-like language)
Thrift
Java API
RESTful HTTP API
TinkerPop Gremlin
ADO.NET
JDBC
ODBC
OLE DB
Tabular Data Stream (TDS)
JDBC
ODBC
ODP.NET
Oracle Call Interface (OCI)
ADO.NET
JDBC
native C library
ODBC
streaming API for large objects
Supported programming languagesC#
C++
Clojure
Erlang
Go
Haskell
Java
JavaScript infoNode.js
Perl
PHP
Python
Ruby
Scala
Groovy
Java
Python
C#
C++
Delphi
Go
Java
JavaScript (Node.js)
PHP
Python
R
Ruby
Visual Basic
C
C#
C++
Clojure
Cobol
Delphi
Eiffel
Erlang
Fortran
Groovy
Haskell
Java
JavaScript
Lisp
Objective C
OCaml
Perl
PHP
Python
R
Ruby
Scala
Tcl
Visual Basic
.Net
C
C++
Delphi
Erlang
Java
JavaScript (Node.js)
Perl
PHP
Python
Tcl
Server-side scripts infoStored proceduresnoasynchronous Gremlin script jobsTransact SQL, .NET languages, R, Python and (with SQL Server 2019) JavaPL/SQL infoalso stored procedures in Java possibleuser defined functions
Triggersyesnoyesyesyes
Partitioning methods infoMethods for storing different data on different nodesSharding infono "single point of failure"yes infodepending on used storage backend, e.g. Cassandra and HBasetables can be distributed across several files (horizontal partitioning); sharding through federationSharding, horizontal partitioninghorizontal partitioning
Replication methods infoMethods for redundantly storing data on multiple nodesselectable replication factor infoRepresentation of geographical distribution of servers is possibleyes infodepending on used storage backend, e.g. Cassandra and HBaseyes, but depending on the SQL-Server EditionMulti-source replication
Source-replica replication
MapReduce infoOffers an API for user-defined Map/Reduce methodsyesvia hugegraph-sparknono infocan be realized in PL/SQLno
Consistency concepts infoMethods to ensure consistency in a distributed systemEventual Consistency
Immediate Consistency infocan be individually decided for each write operation
Eventual ConsistencyImmediate ConsistencyImmediate ConsistencyImmediate Consistency
Foreign keys infoReferential integritynoyes infoedges in graphyesyesyes
Transaction concepts infoSupport to ensure data integrity after non-atomic manipulations of datano infoAtomicity and isolation are supported for single operationsACIDACIDACID infoisolation level can be parameterizedACID infoMVCC
Concurrency infoSupport for concurrent manipulation of datayesyesyesyesyes
Durability infoSupport for making data persistentyesyesyesyesyes
In-memory capabilities infoIs there an option to define some or all structures to be held in-memory only.noyesyesyes infoVersion 12c introduced the new option 'Oracle Database In-Memory'no
User concepts infoAccess controlAccess rights for users can be defined per objectUsers, roles and permissionsfine grained access rights according to SQL-standardfine grained access rights according to SQL-standardfine grained access rights according to SQL-standard
More information provided by the system vendor
CassandraHugeGraphMicrosoft SQL ServerOraclePostgres-XL
Specific characteristicsApache Cassandra is the leading NoSQL, distributed database management system, well...
» more
Competitive advantagesNo single point of failure ensures 100% availability . Operational simplicity for...
» more
Typical application scenariosInternet of Things (IOT), fraud detection applications, recommendation engines, product...
» more
Key customersApple, Netflix, Uber, ING,, Intuit,Fidelity, NY Times, Outbrain, BazaarVoice, Best...
» more
Market metricsCassandra is used by 40% of the Fortune 100.
» more
Licensing and pricing modelsApache license  Pricing for commercial distributions provided by DataStax and available...
» more
News

PacketFabric's Anna Claiborne and Dave Ward: Building Strong Networks with Guts and Vision
10 August 2022

Real-World Machine Learning with Apache Cassandra and Apache Spark (Part 2)
2 August 2022

Creating A Safer Internet One Hacker at a Time with Marten Mickos of HackerOne
27 July 2022

Migrating from SQL to NoSQL with Spring PetClinic and Apache Cassandra
26 July 2022

Pulling Real-Time Ethereum Transactions with Web3.js
20 July 2022

We invite representatives of system vendors to contact us for updating and extending the system information,
and for displaying vendor-provided information such as key customers, competitive advantages and market metrics.

Related products and services
3rd partiesDataStax Cassandra: Zero touch operations, configuration and management with true autoscaling
» more

CData: Connect to Big Data & NoSQL through standard Drivers.
» more

Aiven for Apache Cassandra: A truly distributed database that can handle large volumes of writes.
» more

Instaclustr: Hosted & Managed Apache Cassandra as a Service
» more
Navicat Monitor is a safe, simple and agentless remote server monitoring tool for SQL Server and many other database management systems.
» more

SQLFlow: Provides a visual representation of the overall flow of data. Automated SQL data lineage analysis across Databases, ETL, Business Intelligence, Cloud and Hadoop environments by parsing SQL Script and stored procedure.
» more

SQL Complete: An advanced IntelliSense-style code completion add-in for SSMS and Visual Studio. Write, beautify, refactor your SQL code and give your productivity a dramatic boost.
» more

Navicat for SQL Server gives you a fully graphical approach to database management and development.
» more
SQLFlow: Provides a visual representation of the overall flow of data. Automated SQL data lineage analysis across Databases, ETL, Business Intelligence, Cloud and Hadoop environments by parsing SQL Script and stored procedure.
» more

Navicat for Oracle improves the efficiency and productivity of Oracle developers and administrators with a streamlined working environment.
» more

We invite representatives of vendors of related products to contact us for presenting information about their offerings here.

More resources
CassandraHugeGraphMicrosoft SQL ServerOraclePostgres-XL
DB-Engines blog posts

Cassandra keeps climbing the ranks of the DB-Engines Ranking
3 May 2016, Matthias Gelbmann

Oracle is the DBMS of the Year
5 January 2016, Paul Andlinger, Matthias Gelbmann

Winners, losers and an attractive newcomer in Novembers DB-Engines ranking
2 November 2015, Paul Andlinger

show all

MySQL is the DBMS of the Year 2019
3 January 2020, Matthias Gelbmann, Paul Andlinger

The struggle for the hegemony in Oracle's database empire
2 May 2017, Paul Andlinger

Microsoft SQL Server is the DBMS of the Year
4 January 2017, Matthias Gelbmann, Paul Andlinger

show all

MySQL is the DBMS of the Year 2019
3 January 2020, Matthias Gelbmann, Paul Andlinger

The struggle for the hegemony in Oracle's database empire
2 May 2017, Paul Andlinger

Architecting eCommerce Platforms for Zero Downtime on Black Friday and Beyond
25 November 2016, Tony Branson (guest author)

show all

Recent citations in the news

ScyllaDB V open source NoSQL database embraces WebAssembly
14 July 2022, TechTarget

SQL vs. NoSQL: Which Database is Right for Your Business?
25 July 2022, EnterpriseNetworkingPlanet

Altoros Report Compares Two NoSQL Databases
15 July 2022, Datanami

DataStax CEO: Navigating The Stream Between Data At Rest And Data In Motion
15 July 2022, Forbes

DataStax in a crowded NoSQL Market
3 August 2022, Analytics India Magazine

provided by Google News

SQL Server 2022: Here’s what you need to know
29 July 2022, TechRepublic

SQL Server 2022 New Features
22 July 2022, Petri.com

Why No Full SQL Server Reporting/Integration Services in Visual Studio 2022?
18 July 2022, Visual Studio Magazine

Couldn't connect to West Europe SQL Databases last week? Blame operator error
25 July 2022, The Register

Why Programmers Need to Learn SQL If You Want a Job in Data?
24 July 2022, Analytics Insight

provided by Google News

Oracle and Microsoft announce availability of Oracle Database Service for Microsoft Azure - Stories
20 July 2022, Microsoft

New Oracle Database Platforms And Services Deliver Outstanding Cloud Benefits
1 August 2022, Forbes

A New Service from the Microsoft and Oracle Partnership: Oracle Database Service for Microsoft Azure
28 July 2022, InfoQ.com

Oracle shares the recipe for how it built a supercloud on top of Microsoft Azure
10 August 2022, SiliconANGLE News

Oracle Announces Service For Azure
8 August 2022, iProgrammer

provided by Google News

Building a scalable PostgreSQL solution
14 April 2019, Packt Hub

provided by Google News

Job opportunities

Senior Database Administrator (Cassandra)
EasyPost, Remote

Senior Database Administrator (Cassandra)
EasyPost, Lehi, UT

Database Administrator II
Medallia, United States

Senior Database Administrator (Cassandra)
EasyPost, Denver, CO

Database Engineer - Cassandra
Rockstar Games, Carlsbad, CA

SQL Server Database Administrator
VV Tech Solutions, Austin, TX

SQL Server Developer
Retail Backbone, Remote

SQL Server Developer
Convazant, Remote

SQL SERVER ETL ARCHITECTURE
Tra'Bian Enterprises, Whippany, NJ

SQL Server Developer
TIAA, Charlotte, NC

Oracle Database Administrator
Bay State, Raleigh, NC

Oracle Database Administrator
Labcorp, Raleigh, NC

Oracle Database Administrator
DHL eCommerce, Remote

Oracle Database Administrator
ITResonance, Chicago, IL

Database Administrator - Oracle
Clear Capital, Reno, NV

Data Architect
citius tech, Burlington, MA

Database Administrator / SQL Developer
Semantic AI, San Diego, CA

jobs by Indeed



Share this page

Featured Products

Redis logo

The world’s most loved real‑time data platform.
Try free

Neo4j logo

See for yourself how a graph database can make your life easier.
Use Neo4j online for free.

The definitive guide for Cassandra

Imagine What You Could Do if Scalability Wasn‘t a Problem!
Download the Cassandra e-book for free!

Vertica logo

Vertica Accelerator. The fastest analytics and machine learning, delivered as SaaS, with automated setup, administration, and management. Free trial.

MariaDB logo

SkySQL, the ultimate
MariaDB cloud, is here.

Get started with SkySQL today!

Present your product here