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DBMS > Cassandra vs. GraphDB vs. Neo4j

System Properties Comparison Cassandra vs. GraphDB vs. Neo4j

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Editorial information provided by DB-Engines
NameCassandra  Xexclude from comparisonGraphDB infoformer name: OWLIM  Xexclude from comparisonNeo4j  Xexclude from comparison
DescriptionWide-column store based on ideas of BigTable and DynamoDB infoOptimized for write accessEnterprise-ready RDF and graph database with efficient reasoning, cluster and external index synchronization support. It supports also SQL JDBC access to Knowledge Graph and GraphQL over SPARQL.Scalable, ACID-compliant graph database designed with a high-performance distributed cluster architecture, available in self-hosted and cloud offerings
Primary database modelWide column storeGraph DBMS
RDF store
Graph DBMS
DB-Engines Ranking infomeasures the popularity of database management systemsranking trend
Trend Chart
Score120.88
Rank#10  Overall
#1  Wide column stores
Score2.83
Rank#107  Overall
#6  Graph DBMS
#3  RDF stores
Score57.98
Rank#19  Overall
#1  Graph DBMS
Websitecassandra.apache.orgwww.ontotext.comneo4j.com
Technical documentationcassandra.apache.org/­doc/­latestgraphdb.ontotext.com/­documentationneo4j.com/­docs
DeveloperApache Software Foundation infoApache top level project, originally developped by FacebookOntotextNeo4j, Inc.
Initial release200820002007
Current release4.0.1, September 20219.8, June 20214.3.7, November 2021
License infoCommercial or Open SourceOpen Source infoApache version 2commercial infoSome plugins of GraphDB Workbench are open sourcedOpen Source infoGPL version3, commercial licenses available
Cloud-based only infoOnly available as a cloud servicenonono
DBaaS offerings (sponsored links) infoDatabase as a Service

Providers of DBaaS offerings, please contact us to be listed.
Astra DB: Multi-cloud DBaaS built on Apache Cassandra.Neo4j Aura: Neo4j’s fully managed cloud service: The zero-admin, always-on graph database for cloud developers.
Implementation languageJavaJavaJava, Scala
Server operating systemsBSD
Linux
OS X
Windows
All OS with a Java VM
Linux
OS X
Windows
Linux infoCan also be used server-less as embedded Java database.
OS X
Solaris
Windows
Data schemeschema-freeschema-free and OWL/RDFS-schema support; RDF shapesschema-free and schema-optional
Typing infopredefined data types such as float or dateyesyesyes
XML support infoSome form of processing data in XML format, e.g. support for XML data structures, and/or support for XPath, XQuery or XSLT.nono
Secondary indexesrestricted infoonly equality queries, not always the best performing solutionyes, supports real-time synchronization and indexing in SOLR/Elastic search/Lucene and GeoSPARQL geometry data indexesyes infopluggable indexing subsystem, by default Apache Lucene
SQL infoSupport of SQLSQL-like SELECT, DML and DDL statements (CQL)stored SPARQL accessed as SQL using Apache Calcite through JDBC/ODBCno
APIs and other access methodsProprietary protocol infoCQL (Cassandra Query Language, an SQL-like language)
Thrift
GeoSPARQL
GraphQL
GraphQL Federation
Java API
JDBC
RDF4J API
RDFS
RIO
Sail API
Sesame REST HTTP Protocol
SPARQL 1.1
Bolt protocol
Cypher query language
Java API
Neo4j-OGM infoObject Graph Mapper
RESTful HTTP API
Spring Data Neo4j
TinkerPop 3
Supported programming languagesC#
C++
Clojure
Erlang
Go
Haskell
Java
JavaScript infoNode.js
Perl
PHP
Python
Ruby
Scala
.Net
C#
Clojure
Java
JavaScript (Node.js)
PHP
Python
Ruby
Scala
.Net
Clojure
Elixir
Go
Groovy
Haskell
Java
JavaScript
Perl
PHP
Python
Ruby
Scala
Server-side scripts infoStored proceduresnowell-defined plugin interfaces; JavaScript server-side extensibilityyes infoUser defined Procedures and Functions
Triggersyesnoyes infovia event handler
Partitioning methods infoMethods for storing different data on different nodesSharding infono "single point of failure"noneyes using Neo4j Fabric
Replication methods infoMethods for redundantly storing data on multiple nodesselectable replication factor infoRepresentation of geographical distribution of servers is possibleMulti-source replicationCausal Clustering using Raft protocol infoavailable in in Enterprise Version only
MapReduce infoOffers an API for user-defined Map/Reduce methodsyesnono
Consistency concepts infoMethods to ensure consistency in a distributed systemEventual Consistency
Immediate Consistency infocan be individually decided for each write operation
Immediate Consistency, Eventual consistency (configurable in cluster mode per master or individual client request)Causal and Eventual Consistency configurable in Causal Cluster setup
Immediate Consistency in stand-alone mode
Foreign keys infoReferential integritynoyes infoConstraint checkingyes infoRelationships in graphs
Transaction concepts infoSupport to ensure data integrity after non-atomic manipulations of datano infoAtomicity and isolation are supported for single operationsACIDACID
Concurrency infoSupport for concurrent manipulation of datayesyesyes
Durability infoSupport for making data persistentyesyesyes
In-memory capabilities infoIs there an option to define some or all structures to be held in-memory only.no
User concepts infoAccess controlAccess rights for users can be defined per objectDefault Basic authentication through RDF4J client, or via Java when run with cURL, default token-based in the Workbench or via Rest API, optional access through OpenID or Kerberos single sign-on.Users, roles and permissions. Pluggable authentication with supported standards (LDAP, Active Directory, Kerberos)
More information provided by the system vendor
CassandraGraphDB infoformer name: OWLIMNeo4j
Specific characteristicsApache Cassandra is the leading NoSQL, distributed database management system, well...
» more
GraphDB Enterprise is a high-performance semantic repository created by Ontotext....
» more
Neo4j delivers graph technology that has been battle tested for performance and scale...
» more
Competitive advantagesNo single point of failure ensures 100% availability . Operational simplicity for...
» more
GraphDB allows you to link text and data in big knowledge graphs. It’s easy to experiment...
» more
Neo4j is the market leader, graph database category creator, and the most widely...
» more
Typical application scenariosInternet of Things (IOT), fraud detection applications, recommendation engines, product...
» more
Metadata enrichment and management, linked open data publishing, semantic inferencing...
» more
Real-Time Recommendations Master Data Management Identity and Access Management Network...
» more
Key customersApple, Netflix, Uber, ING,, Intuit,Fidelity, NY Times, Outbrain, BazaarVoice, Best...
» more
BBC, Press Association, Financial Times, DK, Euromoney, The British Museum, Getty...
» more
Over 800 commercial customers and over 4300 startups use Neo4j. Flagship customers...
» more
Market metricsCassandra is used by 40% of the Fortune 100.
» more
GraphDB is the most utilized semantic triplestore for mission-critical enterprise...
» more
Neo4j boasts the world's largest graph database ecosystem with more than 140 million...
» more
Licensing and pricing modelsApache license  Pricing for commercial distributions provided by DataStax and available...
» more
GraphDB-Free is free to use. SE and Enterprise are licensed per CPU-Core used. Perpetual...
» more
GPL v3 license that can be used all the places where you might use MySQL. Neo4j Commercial...
» more
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Related products and services
3rd partiesDataStax Enterprise: Apache Cassandra for enterprises.
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Instaclustr: Hosted & Managed Apache Cassandra as a Service
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CData: Connect to Big Data & NoSQL through standard Drivers.
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Graphable delivers expert services for Neo4j and other Graph DBMS.
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We invite representatives of vendors of related products to contact us for presenting information about their offerings here.

More resources
CassandraGraphDB infoformer name: OWLIMNeo4j
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27 November 2021, It's FOSS

New gRPC API for Apache Cassandra Boosts Performance for Multi-Cloud, Microservices Applications
16 November 2021, Business Wire

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Ontotext's GraphDB 9.2 Supports RDF* to Match the Expressivity of Property Graphs
30 April 2020, PRNewswire

GraphDB 9.5 Offers Data Virtualization From Tables to Graphs and Back
9 December 2020, PRNewswire

Ontotext's GraphDB 9.0 Open-sources its Front-end and Engine Plugins to Empower Knowledge Graph Solutions
3 October 2019, PRNewswire

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Graph database company Neo4j launches free fully-managed cloud service
3 November 2021, VentureBeat

Neo4j Will Use Funds to Expand Managed Cloud Database
9 November 2021, DevOps.com

Neo4j Delivers 417% ROI in 2021 Total Economic Impact Study
18 November 2021, PRNewswire

Google's Ex-CFO Joins Board of $2bn Database Startup Neo4j
9 November 2021, Business Insider

Neo4j AuraDB Free is Now Available in Asia Pacific
15 November 2021, Data & Storage Asean

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