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DBMS > Cassandra vs. Google Cloud Bigtable vs. Google Cloud Spanner

System Properties Comparison Cassandra vs. Google Cloud Bigtable vs. Google Cloud Spanner

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Editorial information provided by DB-Engines
NameCassandra  Xexclude from comparisonGoogle Cloud Bigtable  Xexclude from comparisonGoogle Cloud Spanner  Xexclude from comparison
DescriptionWide-column store based on ideas of BigTable and DynamoDB infoOptimized for write accessGoogle's NoSQL Big Data database service. It's the same database that powers many core Google services, including Search, Analytics, Maps, and Gmail.A horizontally scalable, globally consistent, relational database service. It is the externalization of the core Google database that runs the biggest aspects of Google, like Ads and Google Play.
Primary database modelWide column storeWide column storeRelational DBMS
DB-Engines Ranking infomeasures the popularity of database management systemsranking trend
Trend Chart
Score119.84
Rank#11  Overall
#1  Wide column stores
Score3.39
Rank#89  Overall
#7  Wide column stores
Score2.65
Rank#104  Overall
#50  Relational DBMS
Websitecassandra.apache.orgcloud.google.com/­bigtablecloud.google.com/­spanner
Technical documentationcassandra.apache.org/­doc/­latestcloud.google.com/­bigtable/­docscloud.google.com/­spanner/­docs
DeveloperApache Software Foundation infoApache top level project, originally developped by FacebookGoogleGoogle
Initial release200820152017
Current release3.11.6, February 2020
License infoCommercial or Open SourceOpen Source infoApache version 2commercialcommercial
Cloud-based only infoOnly available as a cloud servicenoyesyes
DBaaS offerings (sponsored links) infoDatabase as a Service

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Implementation languageJava
Server operating systemsBSD
Linux
OS X
Windows
hostedhosted
Data schemeschema-freeschema-freeyes
Typing infopredefined data types such as float or dateyesnoyes
XML support infoSome form of processing data in XML format, e.g. support for XML data structures, and/or support for XPath, XQuery or XSLT.nonono
Secondary indexesrestricted infoonly equality queries, not always the best performing solutionnoyes
SQL infoSupport of SQLSQL-like SELECT, DML and DDL statements (CQL)noyes infoQuery statements complying to ANSI 2011
APIs and other access methodsProprietary protocol infoCQL (Cassandra Query Language, an SQL-like language)
Thrift
gRPC (using protocol buffers) API
HappyBase (Python library)
HBase compatible API (Java)
gRPC (using protocol buffers) API
JDBC infoAt present, JDBC supports read-only queries. No support for DDL or DML statements.
RESTful HTTP API
Supported programming languagesC#
C++
Clojure
Erlang
Go
Haskell
Java
JavaScript infoNode.js
Perl
PHP
Python
Ruby
Scala
C#
C++
Go
Java
JavaScript (Node.js)
Python
Go
Java
JavaScript (Node.js)
Python
Server-side scripts infoStored proceduresnonono
Triggersyesnono
Partitioning methods infoMethods for storing different data on different nodesSharding infono "single point of failure"ShardingSharding
Replication methods infoMethods for redundantly storing data on multiple nodesselectable replication factor infoRepresentation of geographical distribution of servers is possibleInternal replication in Colossus, and regional replication between two clusters in different zonesMulti-source replication with 3 replicas for regional instances.
MapReduce infoOffers an API for user-defined Map/Reduce methodsyesyesyes infousing Google Cloud Dataflow
Consistency concepts infoMethods to ensure consistency in a distributed systemEventual Consistency
Immediate Consistency infocan be individually decided for each write operation
Immediate consistency (for a single cluster), Eventual consistency (for two or more replicated clusters)Immediate Consistency
Foreign keys infoReferential integritynonoyes infoby using interleaved tables, this features focuses more on performance improvements than on referential integrity
Transaction concepts infoSupport to ensure data integrity after non-atomic manipulations of datano infoAtomicity and isolation are supported for single operationsAtomic single-row operationsACID infoStrict serializable isolation
Concurrency infoSupport for concurrent manipulation of datayesyesyes
Durability infoSupport for making data persistentyesyesyes
In-memory capabilities infoIs there an option to define some or all structures to be held in-memory only.nonono
User concepts infoAccess controlAccess rights for users can be defined per objectAccess rights for users, groups and roles based on Google Cloud Identity and Access Management (IAM)Access rights for users, groups and roles based on Google Cloud Identity and Access Management (IAM)
More information provided by the system vendor
CassandraGoogle Cloud BigtableGoogle Cloud Spanner
Specific characteristicsApache Cassandra is the leading NoSQL, distributed database management system, well...
» more
Competitive advantagesNo single point of failure ensures 100% availability . Operational simplicity for...
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Typical application scenariosInternet of Things (IOT), fraud detection applications, recommendation engines, product...
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Key customersApple, Netflix, Uber, ING,, Intuit,Fidelity, NY Times, Outbrain, BazaarVoice, Best...
» more
Market metricsCassandra is used by 40% of the Fortune 100.
» more
Licensing and pricing modelsApache license  Pricing for commercial distributions provided by DataStax and available...
» more

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Related products and services
3rd partiesDataStax Enterprise: Apache Cassandra for enterprises.
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CData: Connect to Big Data & NoSQL through standard Drivers.
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DBHawk: Secure access to SQL, NoSQL and Cloud databases with an all-in-one solution.
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Instaclustr: Fully Hosted and Managed Apache Cassandra
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More resources
CassandraGoogle Cloud BigtableGoogle Cloud Spanner
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