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DBMS > Cassandra vs. Dgraph vs. FoundationDB vs. NuoDB

System Properties Comparison Cassandra vs. Dgraph vs. FoundationDB vs. NuoDB

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Editorial information provided by DB-Engines
NameCassandra  Xexclude from comparisonDgraph  Xexclude from comparisonFoundationDB  Xexclude from comparisonNuoDB  Xexclude from comparison
Created as commercial project in 2013, FoundationDB has been acquired by Apple in March 2015 and was withdrawn from the market. As a consequence, the product was removed from the DB-Engines ranking. In April 2018, Apple open-sourced FoundationDB and it therefore reappears in the ranking.
DescriptionWide-column store based on ideas of BigTable and DynamoDB infoOptimized for write accessDistributed and scalable native Graph DBMSOrdered key-value store. Core features are complimented by layers.NuoDB is a webscale distributed database that supports SQL and ACID transactions
Primary database modelWide column storeGraph DBMSDocument store infosupported via specific layer
Key-value store
Relational DBMS infosupported via specific SQL-layer
Relational DBMS
DB-Engines Ranking infomeasures the popularity of database management systemsranking trend
Trend Chart
Score119.28
Rank#10  Overall
#1  Wide column stores
Score1.74
Rank#129  Overall
#11  Graph DBMS
Score1.35
Rank#146  Overall
#24  Document stores
#28  Key-value stores
#72  Relational DBMS
Score1.07
Rank#168  Overall
#83  Relational DBMS
Websitecassandra.apache.orgdgraph.iowww.foundationdb.orgnuodb.com
Technical documentationcassandra.apache.org/­doc/­latestdgraph.io/­docsapple.github.io/­foundationdbdoc.nuodb.com
DeveloperApache Software Foundation infoApache top level project, originally developped by FacebookDgraph Labs, Inc.FoundationDBNuoDB, Inc.
Initial release2008201620132013
Current release4.0.1, September 20216.2.28, November 2020
License infoCommercial or Open SourceOpen Source infoApache version 2Open Source infoApache 2.0Open Source infoApache 2.0commercial infolimited edition free
Cloud-based only infoOnly available as a cloud servicenononono
DBaaS offerings (sponsored links) infoDatabase as a Service

Providers of DBaaS offerings, please contact us to be listed.
Astra DB: Multi-cloud DBaaS built on Apache Cassandra.
Implementation languageJavaGoC++C++
Server operating systemsBSD
Linux
OS X
Windows
Linux
OS X
Windows
Linux
OS X
Windows
hosted infoAmazon EC2, Windows Azure, SoftLayer
Linux
OS X
Windows
Data schemeschema-freeschema-freeschema-free infosome layers support schemasyes
Typing infopredefined data types such as float or dateyesyesno infosome layers support typingyes
XML support infoSome form of processing data in XML format, e.g. support for XML data structures, and/or support for XPath, XQuery or XSLT.nonono
Secondary indexesrestricted infoonly equality queries, not always the best performing solutionyesnoyes
SQL infoSupport of SQLSQL-like SELECT, DML and DDL statements (CQL)nosupported in specific SQL layer onlyyes
APIs and other access methodsProprietary protocol infoCQL (Cassandra Query Language, an SQL-like language)
Thrift
GraphQL query language
gRPC (using protocol buffers) API
HTTP API
ADO.NET
JDBC
ODBC
Supported programming languagesC#
C++
Clojure
Erlang
Go
Haskell
Java
JavaScript infoNode.js
Perl
PHP
Python
Ruby
Scala
C#
C++
Go
Java
JavaScript (Node.js)
PHP
Python
Ruby
.Net
C
C++
Go
Java
JavaScript infoNode.js
PHP
Python
Ruby
Swift
.Net
C
C++
Go
Java
JavaScript
JavaScript (Node.js)
PHP
Python
Ruby
Server-side scripts infoStored proceduresnonoin SQL-layer onlyJava, SQL
Triggersyesnonoyes
Partitioning methods infoMethods for storing different data on different nodesSharding infono "single point of failure"yesShardingdata is dynamically stored/cached on the nodes where it is read/written
Replication methods infoMethods for redundantly storing data on multiple nodesselectable replication factor infoRepresentation of geographical distribution of servers is possibleSynchronous replication via Raftyesyes infoManaged transparently by NuoDB
MapReduce infoOffers an API for user-defined Map/Reduce methodsyesnonono
Consistency concepts infoMethods to ensure consistency in a distributed systemEventual Consistency
Immediate Consistency infocan be individually decided for each write operation
Immediate ConsistencyLinearizable consistencyImmediate Consistency
Foreign keys infoReferential integritynonoin SQL-layer onlyyes
Transaction concepts infoSupport to ensure data integrity after non-atomic manipulations of datano infoAtomicity and isolation are supported for single operationsACIDACIDACID infotunable commit protocol
Concurrency infoSupport for concurrent manipulation of datayesyesyesyes infoMVCC
Durability infoSupport for making data persistentyesyesyesyes
In-memory capabilities infoIs there an option to define some or all structures to be held in-memory only.noyes infoTemporary table
User concepts infoAccess controlAccess rights for users can be defined per objectno infoPlanned for future releasesnoStandard SQL roles/ privileges, Administrative Users
More information provided by the system vendor
CassandraDgraphFoundationDBNuoDB
Specific characteristicsApache Cassandra is the leading NoSQL, distributed database management system, well...
» more
Competitive advantagesNo single point of failure ensures 100% availability . Operational simplicity for...
» more
Horizontally scalable transactional graph database with fast arbitrary-depth joins...
» more
Typical application scenariosInternet of Things (IOT), fraud detection applications, recommendation engines, product...
» more
Key customersApple, Netflix, Uber, ING,, Intuit,Fidelity, NY Times, Outbrain, BazaarVoice, Best...
» more
Market metricsCassandra is used by 40% of the Fortune 100.
» more
Licensing and pricing modelsApache license  Pricing for commercial distributions provided by DataStax and available...
» more

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DataStax Enterprise: Apache Cassandra for enterprises.
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More resources
CassandraDgraphFoundationDBNuoDB
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