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DBMS > Apache IoTDB vs. Microsoft Azure Data Explorer vs. PostgreSQL vs. TimesTen

System Properties Comparison Apache IoTDB vs. Microsoft Azure Data Explorer vs. PostgreSQL vs. TimesTen

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Editorial information provided by DB-Engines
NameApache IoTDB  Xexclude from comparisonMicrosoft Azure Data Explorer  Xexclude from comparisonPostgreSQL  Xexclude from comparisonTimesTen  Xexclude from comparison
DescriptionA lightweight IoT native database management system deployable on the device and syncing the collected data with the cloud and integrated with Hadoop and SparkFully managed big data interactive analytics platformWidely used open source RDBMS infoDeveloped as objectoriented DBMS (Postgres), gradually enhanced with 'standards' like SQLIn-Memory RDBMS compatible to Oracle
Primary database modelTime Series DBMSRelational DBMS infocolumn orientedRelational DBMS infowith object oriented extensions, e.g.: user defined types/functions and inheritance. Handling of key/value pairs with hstore module.Relational DBMS
Secondary database modelsDocument store infoIf a column is of type dynamic docs.microsoft.com/­en-us/­azure/­kusto/­query/­scalar-data-types/­dynamic then it's possible to add arbitrary JSON documents in this cell
Event Store infothis is the general usage pattern at Microsoft. Billing, Logs, Telemetry events are stored in ADX and the state of an individual entity is defined by the arg_max(timestamps)
Search engine infosupport for complex search expressions docs.microsoft.com/­en-us/­azure/­kusto/­query/­parseoperator FTS, Geospatial docs.microsoft.com/­en-us/­azure/­kusto/­query/­geo-point-to-geohash-function distributed search -> ADX acts as a distributed search engine
Time Series DBMS infosee docs.microsoft.com/­en-us/­azure/­data-explorer/­time-series-analysis
Document store
Spatial DBMS
DB-Engines Ranking infomeasures the popularity of database management systemsranking trend
Trend Chart
Score0.18
Rank#290  Overall
#24  Time Series DBMS
Score5.67
Rank#66  Overall
#36  Relational DBMS
Score586.97
Rank#4  Overall
#4  Relational DBMS
Score1.85
Rank#125  Overall
#60  Relational DBMS
Websiteiotdb.apache.orgazure.microsoft.com/­services/­data-explorerwww.postgresql.orgwww.oracle.com/­database/­technologies/­related/­timesten.html
Technical documentationdocs.microsoft.com/­en-us/­azure/­data-explorerwww.postgresql.org/­docsdocs.oracle.com/­database/­timesten-18.1
DeveloperApache Software FoundationMicrosoftPostgreSQL Global Development Group infowww.postgresql.org/­developerOracle, TimesTen Performance Software, HP infooriginally founded in HP Labs it was acquired by Oracle in 2005
Initial release201820191989 info1989: Postgres, 1996: PostgreSQL1998
Current releasecloud service with continuous releases14.0, September 202111 Release 2 (11.2.2.8.0)
License infoCommercial or Open SourceOpen Source infoApache Version 2.0commercialOpen Source infoBSDcommercial
Cloud-based only infoOnly available as a cloud servicenoyesnono
DBaaS offerings (sponsored links) infoDatabase as a Service

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Implementation languageJavaC
Server operating systemsAll OS with a Java VM (>= 1.8)hostedFreeBSD
HP-UX
Linux
NetBSD
OpenBSD
OS X
Solaris
Unix
Windows
AIX
HP-UX
Linux
OS X
Solaris SPARC/x86
Windows
Data schemeyesFixed schema with schema-less datatypes (dynamic)yesyes
Typing infopredefined data types such as float or dateyesyes infobool, datetime, dynamic, guid, int, long, real, string, timespan, double: docs.microsoft.com/­en-us/­azure/­kusto/­query/­scalar-data-typesyesyes
XML support infoSome form of processing data in XML format, e.g. support for XML data structures, and/or support for XPath, XQuery or XSLT.noyesyes infospecific XML-type available, but no XML query functionality.no
Secondary indexesyesall fields are automatically indexedyesyes
SQL infoSupport of SQLSQL-like query languageKusto Query Language (KQL), SQL subsetyes infostandard with numerous extensionsyes
APIs and other access methodsJDBCMicrosoft SQL Server communication protocol (MS-TDS)
RESTful HTTP API
ADO.NET
JDBC
native C library
ODBC
streaming API for large objects
JDBC
ODBC
ODP.NET
Oracle Call Interface (OCI)
Supported programming languages.Net
Go
Java
JavaScript (Node.js)
PowerShell
Python
R
.Net
C
C++
Delphi
Java infoJDBC
JavaScript (Node.js)
Perl
PHP
Python
Tcl
C
C++
Java
PL/SQL
Server-side scripts infoStored proceduresnoYes, possible languages: KQL, Python, Ruser defined functions inforealized in proprietary language PL/pgSQL or with common languages like Perl, Python, Tcl etc.PL/SQL
Triggersnoyes infosee docs.microsoft.com/­en-us/­azure/­kusto/­management/­updatepolicyyesno
Partitioning methods infoMethods for storing different data on different nodesSharding infoImplicit feature of the cloud servicepartitioning by range, list and (since PostgreSQL 11) by hashnone
Replication methods infoMethods for redundantly storing data on multiple nodesyes infoImplicit feature of the cloud service. Replication either local, cross-facility or geo-redundant.Source-replica replication infoother methods possible by using 3rd party extensionsMulti-source replication
Source-replica replication
MapReduce infoOffers an API for user-defined Map/Reduce methodsIntegration with Hadoop and Sparknonono
Consistency concepts infoMethods to ensure consistency in a distributed systemEventual Consistency with synchronizing with the cloudEventual Consistency
Immediate Consistency
Immediate ConsistencyImmediate Consistency or Eventual Consistency depending on configuration
Foreign keys infoReferential integritynonoyesyes
Transaction concepts infoSupport to ensure data integrity after non-atomic manipulations of datanonoACIDACID
Concurrency infoSupport for concurrent manipulation of datayesyesyesyes
Durability infoSupport for making data persistentyesyesyesyes infoby means of logfiles and checkpoints
In-memory capabilities infoIs there an option to define some or all structures to be held in-memory only.yesnonoyes
User concepts infoAccess controlnoAzure Active Directory Authenticationfine grained access rights according to SQL-standardfine grained access rights according to SQL-standard
More information provided by the system vendor
Apache IoTDBMicrosoft Azure Data ExplorerPostgreSQLTimesTen
Specific characteristicsAzure Data Explorer is a fast and highly scalable data exploration service for log...
» more
Competitive advantagesKusto Query Language (innovative query language, optimized for high performance data...
» more
Typical application scenariosIoT applications IoT devices generate billions of sensor readings. Normalizing and...
» more
Key customersMicrosoft, DocuSign, Taboola, Bosch, Siemens Healthineers, Bühler, Ecolab, Zoomd
» more
Market metricsAzure Data Explorer is the data service for Azure Monitor, Azure Time Series Insights,...
» more

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More resources
Apache IoTDBMicrosoft Azure Data ExplorerPostgreSQLTimesTen
DB-Engines blog posts

The Inexorable Rise of PostgreSQL
24 September 2021,  Matt Yonkovit, Percona (sponsor) 

PostgreSQL is the DBMS of the Year 2020
4 January 2021, Paul Andlinger, Matthias Gelbmann

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Conferences and events

PostgreSQL Performance Tuning Secrets
On Demand Webinar, 21 October 2021

Postgres Build 2021
Free Virtual Event, 30 November 2021 - 1 December 2021

Finished events

Latest Performance Features in PostgreSQL 14
On Demand Webinar, 14 October 2021 (finished)

Recent citations in the news

The Apache Software Foundation Announces Apache® IoTDB™ as
23 September 2020, GlobeNewswire

Apache IoTDB now a Top-Level Project at ASF
23 September 2020, SDTimes.com

SD Times news digest: Apple releases new marketing tools for App Store, Android to expand permissions auto-reset, Swift 5.5 released
21 September 2021, SDTimes.com

Apache Promotes IoT Database Project
25 September 2020, Datanami

The Apache® Software Foundation Announces Program for
17 August 2021, GlobeNewswire

provided by Google News

Improving Azure security with KQL: Log analytics architecture
4 October 2021, TechGenix

Get Started with Accessing Azure Data Explorer using Apache Spark for Azure Synapse Analytics - Microsoft
8 April 2021, Channel 9

Azure Data Explorer gets new engine, numerous enhancements and Synapse integration
14 October 2020, ZDNet

AMD Boosts Microsoft Azure Data Explorer Performance
16 October 2020, SDxCentral

Microsoft's Azure Data Share: How to use this big data tool
9 August 2021, TechRepublic

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Google Opens Up Spanner Database With PostgreSQL Interface
13 October 2021, The Next Platform

PostgreSQL 14 improves open source database performance
30 September 2021, TechTarget

Open-source veteran PostgreSQL emits release 14: Tweaked, scalable, and ready to get heavy
1 October 2021, The Register

PostgreSQL 14 brings performance boosts
1 October 2021, InfoWorld

Postgresql 14 Is Now Available, Check The New Features
6 October 2021, Analytics India Magazine

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25 January 2012, Business Insider

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9 May 2012, TechTarget

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