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DBMS > Apache Impala vs. PostgreSQL vs. Spark SQL

System Properties Comparison Apache Impala vs. PostgreSQL vs. Spark SQL

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Editorial information provided by DB-Engines
NameApache Impala  Xexclude from comparisonPostgreSQL  Xexclude from comparisonSpark SQL  Xexclude from comparison
DescriptionAnalytic DBMS for HadoopWidely used open source RDBMS infoDeveloped as objectoriented DBMS (Postgres), gradually enhanced with 'standards' like SQLSpark SQL is a component on top of 'Spark Core' for structured data processing
Primary database modelRelational DBMSRelational DBMS infowith object oriented extensions, e.g.: user defined types/functions and inheritance. Handling of key/value pairs with hstore module.Relational DBMS
Secondary database modelsDocument storeDocument store
Graph DBMS infowith Apache Age
Spatial DBMS
Vector DBMS infowith pgvector extension
DB-Engines Ranking infomeasures the popularity of database management systemsranking trend
Trend Chart
Score12.45
Rank#40  Overall
#24  Relational DBMS
Score636.25
Rank#4  Overall
#4  Relational DBMS
Score18.04
Rank#33  Overall
#20  Relational DBMS
Websiteimpala.apache.orgwww.postgresql.orgspark.apache.org/­sql
Technical documentationimpala.apache.org/­impala-docs.htmlwww.postgresql.org/­docsspark.apache.org/­docs/­latest/­sql-programming-guide.html
DeveloperApache Software Foundation infoApache top-level project, originally developed by ClouderaPostgreSQL Global Development Group infowww.postgresql.org/­developerApache Software Foundation
Initial release20131989 info1989: Postgres, 1996: PostgreSQL2014
Current release4.1.0, June 202216.3, May 20243.5.0 ( 2.13), September 2023
License infoCommercial or Open SourceOpen Source infoApache Version 2Open Source infoBSDOpen Source infoApache 2.0
Cloud-based only infoOnly available as a cloud servicenonono
DBaaS offerings (sponsored links) infoDatabase as a Service

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Implementation languageC++CScala
Server operating systemsLinuxFreeBSD
HP-UX
Linux
NetBSD
OpenBSD
OS X
Solaris
Unix
Windows
Linux
OS X
Windows
Data schemeyesyesyes
Typing infopredefined data types such as float or dateyesyesyes
XML support infoSome form of processing data in XML format, e.g. support for XML data structures, and/or support for XPath, XQuery or XSLT.noyes infospecific XML-type available, but no XML query functionality.no
Secondary indexesyesyesno
SQL infoSupport of SQLSQL-like DML and DDL statementsyes infostandard with numerous extensionsSQL-like DML and DDL statements
APIs and other access methodsJDBC
ODBC
ADO.NET
JDBC
native C library
ODBC
streaming API for large objects
JDBC
ODBC
Supported programming languagesAll languages supporting JDBC/ODBC.Net
C
C++
Delphi
Java infoJDBC
JavaScript (Node.js)
Perl
PHP
Python
Tcl
Java
Python
R
Scala
Server-side scripts infoStored proceduresyes infouser defined functions and integration of map-reduceuser defined functions inforealized in proprietary language PL/pgSQL or with common languages like Perl, Python, Tcl etc.no
Triggersnoyesno
Partitioning methods infoMethods for storing different data on different nodesShardingpartitioning by range, list and (since PostgreSQL 11) by hashyes, utilizing Spark Core
Replication methods infoMethods for redundantly storing data on multiple nodesselectable replication factorSource-replica replication infoother methods possible by using 3rd party extensionsnone
MapReduce infoOffers an API for user-defined Map/Reduce methodsyes infoquery execution via MapReduceno
Consistency concepts infoMethods to ensure consistency in a distributed systemEventual ConsistencyImmediate Consistency
Foreign keys infoReferential integritynoyesno
Transaction concepts infoSupport to ensure data integrity after non-atomic manipulations of datanoACIDno
Concurrency infoSupport for concurrent manipulation of datayesyesyes
Durability infoSupport for making data persistentyesyesyes
In-memory capabilities infoIs there an option to define some or all structures to be held in-memory only.nonono
User concepts infoAccess controlAccess rights for users, groups and roles infobased on Apache Sentry and Kerberosfine grained access rights according to SQL-standardno

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More resources
Apache ImpalaPostgreSQLSpark SQL
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