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DBMS > Apache Impala vs. Microsoft SQL Server vs. PostgreSQL vs. ToroDB

System Properties Comparison Apache Impala vs. Microsoft SQL Server vs. PostgreSQL vs. ToroDB

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Editorial information provided by DB-Engines
NameApache Impala  Xexclude from comparisonMicrosoft SQL Server  Xexclude from comparisonPostgreSQL  Xexclude from comparisonToroDB  Xexclude from comparison
ToroDB seems to be discontinued. Therefore it is excluded from the DB-Engines Ranking.
DescriptionAnalytic DBMS for HadoopMicrosofts flagship relational DBMSWidely used open source RDBMS infoDeveloped as objectoriented DBMS (Postgres), gradually enhanced with 'standards' like SQLA MongoDB-compatible JSON document store, built on top of PostgreSQL
Primary database modelRelational DBMSRelational DBMSRelational DBMS infowith object oriented extensions, e.g.: user defined types/functions and inheritance. Handling of key/value pairs with hstore module.Document store
Secondary database modelsDocument storeDocument store
Graph DBMS
Spatial DBMS
Document store
Graph DBMS infowith Apache Age
Spatial DBMS
Vector DBMS infowith pgvector extension
DB-Engines Ranking infomeasures the popularity of database management systemsranking trend
Trend Chart
Score15.06
Rank#39  Overall
#24  Relational DBMS
Score845.81
Rank#3  Overall
#3  Relational DBMS
Score634.91
Rank#4  Overall
#4  Relational DBMS
Websiteimpala.apache.orgwww.microsoft.com/­en-us/­sql-serverwww.postgresql.orggithub.com/­torodb/­server
Technical documentationimpala.apache.org/­impala-docs.htmllearn.microsoft.com/­en-US/­sql/­sql-serverwww.postgresql.org/­docs
DeveloperApache Software Foundation infoApache top-level project, originally developed by ClouderaMicrosoftPostgreSQL Global Development Group infowww.postgresql.org/­developer8Kdata
Initial release201319891989 info1989: Postgres, 1996: PostgreSQL2016
Current release4.1.0, June 2022SQL Server 2022, November 202216.2, February 2024
License infoCommercial or Open SourceOpen Source infoApache Version 2commercial inforestricted free version is availableOpen Source infoBSDOpen Source infoAGPL-V3
Cloud-based only infoOnly available as a cloud servicenononono
DBaaS offerings (sponsored links) infoDatabase as a Service

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Implementation languageC++C++CJava
Server operating systemsLinuxLinux
Windows
FreeBSD
HP-UX
Linux
NetBSD
OpenBSD
OS X
Solaris
Unix
Windows
All OS with a Java 7 VM
Data schemeyesyesyesschema-free
Typing infopredefined data types such as float or dateyesyesyesyes infostring, integer, double, boolean, date, object_id
XML support infoSome form of processing data in XML format, e.g. support for XML data structures, and/or support for XPath, XQuery or XSLT.noyesyes infospecific XML-type available, but no XML query functionality.no
Secondary indexesyesyesyes
SQL infoSupport of SQLSQL-like DML and DDL statementsyesyes infostandard with numerous extensions
APIs and other access methodsJDBC
ODBC
ADO.NET
JDBC
ODBC
OLE DB
Tabular Data Stream (TDS)
ADO.NET
JDBC
native C library
ODBC
streaming API for large objects
Supported programming languagesAll languages supporting JDBC/ODBCC#
C++
Delphi
Go
Java
JavaScript (Node.js)
PHP
Python
R
Ruby
Visual Basic
.Net
C
C++
Delphi
Java infoJDBC
JavaScript (Node.js)
Perl
PHP
Python
Tcl
Server-side scripts infoStored proceduresyes infouser defined functions and integration of map-reduceTransact SQL, .NET languages, R, Python and (with SQL Server 2019) Javauser defined functions inforealized in proprietary language PL/pgSQL or with common languages like Perl, Python, Tcl etc.
Triggersnoyesyesno
Partitioning methods infoMethods for storing different data on different nodesShardingtables can be distributed across several files (horizontal partitioning); sharding through federationpartitioning by range, list and (since PostgreSQL 11) by hashSharding
Replication methods infoMethods for redundantly storing data on multiple nodesselectable replication factoryes, but depending on the SQL-Server EditionSource-replica replication infoother methods possible by using 3rd party extensionsSource-replica replication
MapReduce infoOffers an API for user-defined Map/Reduce methodsyes infoquery execution via MapReducenono
Consistency concepts infoMethods to ensure consistency in a distributed systemEventual ConsistencyImmediate ConsistencyImmediate ConsistencyEventual Consistency
Immediate Consistency
Foreign keys infoReferential integritynoyesyesno
Transaction concepts infoSupport to ensure data integrity after non-atomic manipulations of datanoACIDACIDno
Concurrency infoSupport for concurrent manipulation of datayesyesyesyes
Durability infoSupport for making data persistentyesyesyesyes
In-memory capabilities infoIs there an option to define some or all structures to be held in-memory only.noyesno
User concepts infoAccess controlAccess rights for users, groups and roles infobased on Apache Sentry and Kerberosfine grained access rights according to SQL-standardfine grained access rights according to SQL-standardAccess rights for users and roles

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More resources
Apache ImpalaMicrosoft SQL ServerPostgreSQLToroDB
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