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DBMS > Apache Impala vs. Microsoft Azure SQL Database vs. PostgreSQL

System Properties Comparison Apache Impala vs. Microsoft Azure SQL Database vs. PostgreSQL

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Editorial information provided by DB-Engines
NameApache Impala  Xexclude from comparisonMicrosoft Azure SQL Database infoformerly SQL Azure  Xexclude from comparisonPostgreSQL  Xexclude from comparison
DescriptionAnalytic DBMS for HadoopDatabase as a Service offering with high compatibility to Microsoft SQL ServerWidely used open source RDBMS infoDeveloped as objectoriented DBMS (Postgres), gradually enhanced with 'standards' like SQL
Primary database modelRelational DBMSRelational DBMSRelational DBMS infowith object oriented extensions, e.g.: user defined types/functions and inheritance. Handling of key/value pairs with hstore module.
Secondary database modelsDocument storeDocument store
Graph DBMS
Spatial DBMS
Document store
Graph DBMS infowith Apache Age
Spatial DBMS
Vector DBMS infowith pgvector extension
DB-Engines Ranking infomeasures the popularity of database management systemsranking trend
Trend Chart
Score12.57
Rank#40  Overall
#24  Relational DBMS
Score76.75
Rank#16  Overall
#11  Relational DBMS
Score638.91
Rank#4  Overall
#4  Relational DBMS
Websiteimpala.apache.orgazure.microsoft.com/­en-us/­products/­azure-sql/­databasewww.postgresql.org
Technical documentationimpala.apache.org/­impala-docs.htmldocs.microsoft.com/­en-us/­azure/­azure-sqlwww.postgresql.org/­docs
DeveloperApache Software Foundation infoApache top-level project, originally developed by ClouderaMicrosoftPostgreSQL Global Development Group infowww.postgresql.org/­developer
Initial release201320101989 info1989: Postgres, 1996: PostgreSQL
Current release4.1.0, June 2022V1216.3, May 2024
License infoCommercial or Open SourceOpen Source infoApache Version 2commercialOpen Source infoBSD
Cloud-based only infoOnly available as a cloud servicenoyesno
DBaaS offerings (sponsored links) infoDatabase as a Service

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Implementation languageC++C++C
Server operating systemsLinuxhostedFreeBSD
HP-UX
Linux
NetBSD
OpenBSD
OS X
Solaris
Unix
Windows
Data schemeyesyesyes
Typing infopredefined data types such as float or dateyesyesyes
XML support infoSome form of processing data in XML format, e.g. support for XML data structures, and/or support for XPath, XQuery or XSLT.noyesyes infospecific XML-type available, but no XML query functionality.
Secondary indexesyesyesyes
SQL infoSupport of SQLSQL-like DML and DDL statementsyesyes infostandard with numerous extensions
APIs and other access methodsJDBC
ODBC
ADO.NET
JDBC
ODBC
ADO.NET
JDBC
native C library
ODBC
streaming API for large objects
Supported programming languagesAll languages supporting JDBC/ODBC.Net
C#
Java
JavaScript (Node.js)
PHP
Python
Ruby
.Net
C
C++
Delphi
Java infoJDBC
JavaScript (Node.js)
Perl
PHP
Python
Tcl
Server-side scripts infoStored proceduresyes infouser defined functions and integration of map-reduceTransact SQLuser defined functions inforealized in proprietary language PL/pgSQL or with common languages like Perl, Python, Tcl etc.
Triggersnoyesyes
Partitioning methods infoMethods for storing different data on different nodesShardingpartitioning by range, list and (since PostgreSQL 11) by hash
Replication methods infoMethods for redundantly storing data on multiple nodesselectable replication factoryes, with always 3 replicas availableSource-replica replication infoother methods possible by using 3rd party extensions
MapReduce infoOffers an API for user-defined Map/Reduce methodsyes infoquery execution via MapReducenono
Consistency concepts infoMethods to ensure consistency in a distributed systemEventual ConsistencyImmediate ConsistencyImmediate Consistency
Foreign keys infoReferential integritynoyesyes
Transaction concepts infoSupport to ensure data integrity after non-atomic manipulations of datanoACIDACID
Concurrency infoSupport for concurrent manipulation of datayesyesyes
Durability infoSupport for making data persistentyesyesyes
In-memory capabilities infoIs there an option to define some or all structures to be held in-memory only.nono
User concepts infoAccess controlAccess rights for users, groups and roles infobased on Apache Sentry and Kerberosfine grained access rights according to SQL-standardfine grained access rights according to SQL-standard

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More resources
Apache ImpalaMicrosoft Azure SQL Database infoformerly SQL AzurePostgreSQL
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Conferences, events and webinars

PASS Data Community Summit
Seattle, Washington, 4-8 November 2024

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