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DBMS > Apache Druid vs. Google Cloud Spanner vs. PostgreSQL

System Properties Comparison Apache Druid vs. Google Cloud Spanner vs. PostgreSQL

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Editorial information provided by DB-Engines
NameApache Druid  Xexclude from comparisonGoogle Cloud Spanner  Xexclude from comparisonPostgreSQL  Xexclude from comparison
DescriptionOpen-source analytics data store designed for sub-second OLAP queries on high dimensionality and high cardinality dataA horizontally scalable, globally consistent, relational database service. It is the externalization of the core Google database that runs the biggest aspects of Google, like Ads and Google Play.Widely used open source RDBMS infoDeveloped as objectoriented DBMS (Postgres), gradually enhanced with 'standards' like SQL
Primary database modelRelational DBMS
Time Series DBMS
Relational DBMSRelational DBMS infowith object oriented extensions, e.g.: user defined types/functions and inheritance. Handling of key/value pairs with hstore module.
Secondary database modelsDocument store
Spatial DBMS
DB-Engines Ranking infomeasures the popularity of database management systemsranking trend
Trend Chart
Score2.63
Rank#101  Overall
#50  Relational DBMS
#7  Time Series DBMS
Score2.57
Rank#103  Overall
#51  Relational DBMS
Score553.52
Rank#4  Overall
#4  Relational DBMS
Websitedruid.apache.orgcloud.google.com/­spannerwww.postgresql.org
Technical documentationdruid.apache.org/­docs/­latest/­designcloud.google.com/­spanner/­docswww.postgresql.org/­docs
DeveloperApache Software Foundation and contributorsGooglePostgreSQL Global Development Group infowww.postgresql.org/­developer
Initial release201220171989 info1989: Postgres, 1996: PostgreSQL
Current release0.20.2, March 202113.2 , February 2021
License infoCommercial or Open SourceOpen Source infoApache license v2commercialOpen Source infoBSD
Cloud-based only infoOnly available as a cloud servicenoyesno
DBaaS offerings (sponsored links) infoDatabase as a Service

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Implementation languageJavaC
Server operating systemsLinux
OS X
Unix
hostedFreeBSD
HP-UX
Linux
NetBSD
OpenBSD
OS X
Solaris
Unix
Windows
Data schemeyes infoschema-less columns are supportedyesyes
Typing infopredefined data types such as float or dateyesyesyes
XML support infoSome form of processing data in XML format, e.g. support for XML data structures, and/or support for XPath, XQuery or XSLT.nonoyes infospecific XML-type available, but no XML query functionality.
Secondary indexesyesyesyes
SQL infoSupport of SQLSQL for queryingyes infoQuery statements complying to ANSI 2011yes infostandard with numerous extensions
APIs and other access methodsJDBC
RESTful HTTP/JSON API
gRPC (using protocol buffers) API
JDBC infoAt present, JDBC supports read-only queries. No support for DDL or DML statements.
RESTful HTTP API
ADO.NET
JDBC
native C library
ODBC
streaming API for large objects
Supported programming languagesClojure
JavaScript
PHP
Python
R
Ruby
Scala
Go
Java
JavaScript (Node.js)
Python
.Net
C
C++
Delphi
Java infoJDBC
JavaScript (Node.js)
Perl
PHP
Python
Tcl
Server-side scripts infoStored proceduresnonouser defined functions inforealized in proprietary language PL/pgSQL or with common languages like Perl, Python, Tcl etc.
Triggersnonoyes
Partitioning methods infoMethods for storing different data on different nodesSharding infomanual/auto, time-basedShardingpartitioning by range, list and (since PostgreSQL 11) by hash
Replication methods infoMethods for redundantly storing data on multiple nodesyes, via HDFS, S3 or other storage enginesMulti-source replication with 3 replicas for regional instances.Source-replica replication infoother methods possible by using 3rd party extensions
MapReduce infoOffers an API for user-defined Map/Reduce methodsnoyes infousing Google Cloud Dataflowno
Consistency concepts infoMethods to ensure consistency in a distributed systemImmediate ConsistencyImmediate ConsistencyImmediate Consistency
Foreign keys infoReferential integritynoyes infoby using interleaved tables, this features focuses more on performance improvements than on referential integrityyes
Transaction concepts infoSupport to ensure data integrity after non-atomic manipulations of datanoACID infoStrict serializable isolationACID
Concurrency infoSupport for concurrent manipulation of datayesyesyes
Durability infoSupport for making data persistentyesyesyes
In-memory capabilities infoIs there an option to define some or all structures to be held in-memory only.nonono
User concepts infoAccess controlRBAC using LDAP or Druid internals for users and groups for read/write by datasource and systemAccess rights for users, groups and roles based on Google Cloud Identity and Access Management (IAM)fine grained access rights according to SQL-standard

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Apache DruidGoogle Cloud SpannerPostgreSQL
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