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DBMS > Apache Cassandra vs. Google Cloud Spanner vs. YugabyteDB

System Properties Comparison Apache Cassandra vs. Google Cloud Spanner vs. YugabyteDB

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Editorial information provided by DB-Engines
NameApache Cassandra  Xexclude from comparisonGoogle Cloud Spanner  Xexclude from comparisonYugabyteDB  Xexclude from comparison
DescriptionWide-column store based on ideas of BigTable and DynamoDB infoOptimized for write accessA horizontally scalable, globally consistent, relational database service. It is the externalization of the core Google database that runs the biggest aspects of Google, like Ads and Google Play.High-performance distributed SQL database for global, internet-scale applications. Wire and feature compatible with PostgreSQL.
Primary database modelWide column storeRelational DBMSRelational DBMS
Secondary database modelsVector DBMS infostarting with release V5Document store
Wide column store
DB-Engines Ranking infomeasures the popularity of database management systemsranking trend
Trend Chart
Score99.13
Rank#12  Overall
#1  Wide column stores
Score2.77
Rank#100  Overall
#51  Relational DBMS
Score2.32
Rank#110  Overall
#53  Relational DBMS
Websitecassandra.apache.orgcloud.google.com/­spannerwww.yugabyte.com
Technical documentationcassandra.apache.org/­doc/­latestcloud.google.com/­spanner/­docsdocs.yugabyte.com
github.com/­yugabyte/­yugabyte-db
DeveloperApache Software Foundation infoApache top level project, originally developped by FacebookGoogleYugabyte Inc.
Initial release200820172017
Current release4.1.3, July 20232.19, September 2023
License infoCommercial or Open SourceOpen Source infoApache version 2commercialOpen Source infoApache 2.0
Cloud-based only infoOnly available as a cloud servicenoyesno
DBaaS offerings (sponsored links) infoDatabase as a Service

Providers of DBaaS offerings, please contact us to be listed.
Astra DB: Multi-cloud DBaaS built on Apache Cassandra.YugabyteDB Managed is the fully managed database-as-a-service offering of YugabyteDB. Get started quickly, and effortlessly ensure continuous availability and limitless scale of your cloud native applications.
Implementation languageJavaC and C++
Server operating systemsBSD
Linux
OS X
Windows
hostedLinux
OS X
Data schemeschema-freeyesdepending on used data model
Typing infopredefined data types such as float or dateyesyesyes
XML support infoSome form of processing data in XML format, e.g. support for XML data structures, and/or support for XPath, XQuery or XSLT.nonono
Secondary indexesrestricted infoonly equality queries, not always the best performing solutionyesyes
SQL infoSupport of SQLSQL-like SELECT, DML and DDL statements (CQL)yes infoQuery statements complying to ANSI 2011yes, PostgreSQL compatible
APIs and other access methodsProprietary protocol infoCQL (Cassandra Query Language, an SQL-like language)
Thrift
gRPC (using protocol buffers) API
JDBC infoAt present, JDBC supports read-only queries. No support for DDL or DML statements.
RESTful HTTP API
JDBC
YCQL, an SQL-based flexible-schema API with its roots in Cassandra Query Language
YSQL - a fully relational SQL API that is wire compatible with the SQL language in PostgreSQL
Supported programming languagesC#
C++
Clojure
Erlang
Go
Haskell
Java
JavaScript infoNode.js
Perl
PHP
Python
Ruby
Scala
Go
Java
JavaScript (Node.js)
Python
C
C#
C++
Go
Java
JavaScript (Node.js)
PHP
Python
Ruby
Rust
Scala
Server-side scripts infoStored proceduresnonoyes infosql, plpgsql, C
Triggersyesnoyes
Partitioning methods infoMethods for storing different data on different nodesSharding infono "single point of failure"ShardingHash and Range Sharding, row-level geo-partitioning
Replication methods infoMethods for redundantly storing data on multiple nodesselectable replication factor infoRepresentation of geographical distribution of servers is possibleMulti-source replication with 3 replicas for regional instances.Based on Raft distributed consensus protocol, minimum 3 replicas for continuous availability
MapReduce infoOffers an API for user-defined Map/Reduce methodsyesyes infousing Google Cloud Dataflowno
Consistency concepts infoMethods to ensure consistency in a distributed systemEventual Consistency
Immediate Consistency infocan be individually decided for each write operation
Immediate ConsistencyStrong consistency on writes and tunable consistency on reads
Foreign keys infoReferential integritynoyes infoby using interleaved tables, this features focuses more on performance improvements than on referential integrityyes
Transaction concepts infoSupport to ensure data integrity after non-atomic manipulations of datano infoAtomicity and isolation are supported for single operationsACID infoStrict serializable isolationDistributed ACID with Serializable & Snapshot Isolation. Inspired by Google Spanner architecture.
Concurrency infoSupport for concurrent manipulation of datayesyesyes
Durability infoSupport for making data persistentyesyesyes infobased on RocksDB
In-memory capabilities infoIs there an option to define some or all structures to be held in-memory only.nonono
User concepts infoAccess controlAccess rights for users can be defined per objectAccess rights for users, groups and roles based on Google Cloud Identity and Access Management (IAM)yes
More information provided by the system vendor
Apache CassandraGoogle Cloud SpannerYugabyteDB
Specific characteristicsApache Cassandra is the leading NoSQL, distributed database management system, well...
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YugabyteDB is an open source distributed SQL database for cloud native transactional...
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Competitive advantagesNo single point of failure ensures 100% availability . Operational simplicity for...
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PostgreSQL compatible: Get instantly productive with a PostgreSQL compatible RDBMS....
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Typical application scenariosInternet of Things (IOT), fraud detection applications, recommendation engines, product...
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Systems of record and engagement for cloud native applications that require resilience,...
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Key customersApple, Netflix, Uber, ING,, Intuit,Fidelity, NY Times, Outbrain, BazaarVoice, Best...
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Market metricsApache Cassandra is used by 40% of the Fortune 100.
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2 Million+ lifetime clusters deployed, 6.5K+ GitHub stars, 7K YugabyteDB Community...
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Licensing and pricing modelsApache license  Pricing for commercial distributions provided by DataStax and available...
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Apache 2.0 license for the database
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