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DBMS > Apache Cassandra vs. Firebase Realtime Database vs. Google Cloud Spanner

System Properties Comparison Apache Cassandra vs. Firebase Realtime Database vs. Google Cloud Spanner

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Editorial information provided by DB-Engines
NameApache Cassandra  Xexclude from comparisonFirebase Realtime Database  Xexclude from comparisonGoogle Cloud Spanner  Xexclude from comparison
DescriptionWide-column store based on ideas of BigTable and DynamoDB infoOptimized for write accessCloud-hosted realtime document store. iOS, Android, and JavaScript clients share one Realtime Database instance and automatically receive updates with the newest data.A horizontally scalable, globally consistent, relational database service. It is the externalization of the core Google database that runs the biggest aspects of Google, like Ads and Google Play.
Primary database modelWide column storeDocument storeRelational DBMS
Secondary database modelsVector DBMS infostarting with release V5
DB-Engines Ranking infomeasures the popularity of database management systemsranking trend
Trend Chart
Score99.13
Rank#12  Overall
#1  Wide column stores
Score13.87
Rank#39  Overall
#6  Document stores
Score2.77
Rank#100  Overall
#51  Relational DBMS
Websitecassandra.apache.orgfirebase.google.com/­products/­realtime-databasecloud.google.com/­spanner
Technical documentationcassandra.apache.org/­doc/­latestfirebase.google.com/­docs/­databasecloud.google.com/­spanner/­docs
DeveloperApache Software Foundation infoApache top level project, originally developped by FacebookGoogle infoacquired by Google 2014Google
Initial release200820122017
Current release5.0-rc1, July 2024
License infoCommercial or Open SourceOpen Source infoApache version 2commercialcommercial
Cloud-based only infoOnly available as a cloud servicenoyesyes
DBaaS offerings (sponsored links) infoDatabase as a Service

Providers of DBaaS offerings, please contact us to be listed.
Astra DB: Multi-cloud DBaaS built on Apache Cassandra.
Implementation languageJava
Server operating systemsBSD
Linux
OS X
Windows
hostedhosted
Data schemeschema-freeschema-freeyes
Typing infopredefined data types such as float or dateyesyesyes
XML support infoSome form of processing data in XML format, e.g. support for XML data structures, and/or support for XPath, XQuery or XSLT.nonono
Secondary indexesrestricted infoonly equality queries, not always the best performing solutionyesyes
SQL infoSupport of SQLSQL-like SELECT, DML and DDL statements (CQL)noyes infoQuery statements complying to ANSI 2011
APIs and other access methodsProprietary protocol infoCQL (Cassandra Query Language, an SQL-like language)
Thrift
Android
iOS
JavaScript API
RESTful HTTP API
gRPC (using protocol buffers) API
JDBC infoAt present, JDBC supports read-only queries. No support for DDL or DML statements.
RESTful HTTP API
Supported programming languagesC#
C++
Clojure
Erlang
Go
Haskell
Java
JavaScript infoNode.js
Perl
PHP
Python
Ruby
Scala
Java
JavaScript
Objective-C
Go
Java
JavaScript (Node.js)
Python
Server-side scripts infoStored proceduresnolimited functionality with using 'rules'no
TriggersyesCallbacks are triggered when data changesno
Partitioning methods infoMethods for storing different data on different nodesSharding infono "single point of failure"Sharding
Replication methods infoMethods for redundantly storing data on multiple nodesselectable replication factor infoRepresentation of geographical distribution of servers is possibleMulti-source replication with 3 replicas for regional instances.
MapReduce infoOffers an API for user-defined Map/Reduce methodsyesnoyes infousing Google Cloud Dataflow
Consistency concepts infoMethods to ensure consistency in a distributed systemEventual Consistency
Immediate Consistency infocan be individually decided for each write operation
Eventual Consistency infoif the client is offline
Immediate Consistency infoif the client is online
Immediate Consistency
Foreign keys infoReferential integritynonoyes infoby using interleaved tables, this features focuses more on performance improvements than on referential integrity
Transaction concepts infoSupport to ensure data integrity after non-atomic manipulations of datano infoAtomicity and isolation are supported for single operationsyesACID infoStrict serializable isolation
Concurrency infoSupport for concurrent manipulation of datayesyesyes
Durability infoSupport for making data persistentyesyesyes
In-memory capabilities infoIs there an option to define some or all structures to be held in-memory only.nono
User concepts infoAccess controlAccess rights for users can be defined per objectyes, based on authentication and database rulesAccess rights for users, groups and roles based on Google Cloud Identity and Access Management (IAM)
More information provided by the system vendor
Apache CassandraFirebase Realtime DatabaseGoogle Cloud Spanner
Specific characteristicsApache Cassandra is the leading NoSQL, distributed database management system, well...
» more
Competitive advantagesNo single point of failure ensures 100% availability . Operational simplicity for...
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Typical application scenariosInternet of Things (IOT), fraud detection applications, recommendation engines, product...
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Key customersApple, Netflix, Uber, ING,, Intuit,Fidelity, NY Times, Outbrain, BazaarVoice, Best...
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Market metricsApache Cassandra is used by 40% of the Fortune 100.
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Licensing and pricing modelsApache license  Pricing for commercial distributions provided by DataStax and available...
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More resources
Apache CassandraFirebase Realtime DatabaseGoogle Cloud Spanner
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