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DBMS > Amazon Redshift vs. Datomic vs. RethinkDB vs. Virtuoso

System Properties Comparison Amazon Redshift vs. Datomic vs. RethinkDB vs. Virtuoso

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Editorial information provided by DB-Engines
NameAmazon Redshift  Xexclude from comparisonDatomic  Xexclude from comparisonRethinkDB  Xexclude from comparisonVirtuoso  Xexclude from comparison
DescriptionLarge scale data warehouse service for use with business intelligence toolsDatomic builds on immutable values, supports point-in-time queries and uses 3rd party systems for durabilityDBMS for the Web with a mechanism to push updated query results to applications in realtime.Virtuoso is a multi-model hybrid-RDBMS that supports management of data represented as relational tables and/or property graphs
Primary database modelRelational DBMSRelational DBMSDocument storeDocument store
Graph DBMS
Native XML DBMS
Relational DBMS
RDF store
Search engine
Secondary database modelsSpatial DBMSSpatial DBMS
DB-Engines Ranking infomeasures the popularity of database management systemsranking trend
Trend Chart
Score22.42
Rank#33  Overall
#19  Relational DBMS
Score1.96
Rank#117  Overall
#57  Relational DBMS
Score3.15
Rank#90  Overall
#16  Document stores
Score3.18
Rank#89  Overall
#15  Document stores
#5  Graph DBMS
#2  Native XML DBMS
#48  Relational DBMS
#2  RDF stores
#9  Search engines
Websiteaws.amazon.com/­redshiftwww.datomic.comrethinkdb.comvirtuoso.openlinksw.com
Technical documentationdocs.aws.amazon.com/­redshiftdocs.datomic.comrethinkdb.com/­docsdocs.openlinksw.com/­virtuoso
DeveloperAmazon (based on PostgreSQL)CognitectThe Linux Foundation infosince July 2017OpenLink Software
Initial release2012201220091998
Current release0.9.5951, July 20192.4.1, August 202008.03.3316, March 2020
License infoCommercial or Open Sourcecommercialcommercial infolimited edition freeOpen Source infoApache Version 2Open Source infoGPLv2, extended commercial license available
Cloud-based only infoOnly available as a cloud serviceyesnonono
DBaaS offerings (sponsored links) infoDatabase as a Service

Providers of DBaaS offerings, please contact us to be listed.
Implementation languageCJava, ClojureC++C
Server operating systemshostedAll OS with a Java VMLinux
OS X
Windows
AIX
FreeBSD
HP-UX
Linux
OS X
Solaris
Windows
Data schemeyesyesschema-freeyes infoSQL - Standard relational schema
RDF - Quad (S, P, O, G) or Triple (S, P, O)
XML - DTD, XML Schema
DAV - freeform filesystem objects, plus User Defined Types a/k/a Dynamic Extension Type
Typing infopredefined data types such as float or dateyesyesyes infostring, binary, float, bool, date, geometryyes
XML support infoSome form of processing data in XML format, e.g. support for XML data structures, and/or support for XPath, XQuery or XSLT.nononoyes
Secondary indexesrestrictedyesyesyes
SQL infoSupport of SQLyes infodoes not fully support an SQL-standardnonoyes infoSQL-92, SQL-200x, SQL-3, SQLX
APIs and other access methodsJDBC
ODBC
RESTful HTTP APIADO.NET
GeoSPARQL
HTTP API
JDBC
Jena RDF API
ODBC
OLE DB
RDF4J API
RESTful HTTP API
Sesame REST HTTP Protocol
SOAP webservices
SPARQL 1.1
WebDAV
XPath
XQuery
XSLT
Supported programming languagesAll languages supporting JDBC/ODBCClojure
Java
C infocommunity-supported driver
C# infocommunity-supported driver
C++ infocommunity-supported driver
Clojure infocommunity-supported driver
Dart infocommunity-supported driver
Erlang infocommunity-supported driver
Go infocommunity-supported driver
Haskell infocommunity-supported driver
Java infoofficial driver
JavaScript (Node.js) infoofficial driver
Lisp infocommunity-supported driver
Lua infocommunity-supported driver
Objective-C infocommunity-supported driver
Perl infocommunity-supported driver
PHP infocommunity-supported driver
Python infoofficial driver
Ruby infoofficial driver
Scala infocommunity-supported driver
.Net
C
C#
C++
Java
JavaScript
Perl
PHP
Python
Ruby
Visual Basic
Server-side scripts infoStored proceduresuser defined functions infoin Pythonyes infoTransaction Functionsyes infoVirtuoso PL
TriggersnoBy using transaction functionsClient-side triggers through changefeedsyes
Partitioning methods infoMethods for storing different data on different nodesShardingnone infoBut extensive use of caching in the application peersSharding inforange basedyes
Replication methods infoMethods for redundantly storing data on multiple nodesyesnone infoBut extensive use of caching in the application peersSource-replica replicationChain, star, and bi-directional replication
Multi-source replication
Source-replica replication
MapReduce infoOffers an API for user-defined Map/Reduce methodsnonoyesyes
Consistency concepts infoMethods to ensure consistency in a distributed systemImmediate ConsistencyImmediate ConsistencyImmediate ConsistencyImmediate Consistency
Foreign keys infoReferential integrityyes infoinformational only, not enforced by the systemnonoyes
Transaction concepts infoSupport to ensure data integrity after non-atomic manipulations of dataACIDACIDAtomic single-document operationsACID
Concurrency infoSupport for concurrent manipulation of datayesyesyes infoMVCC basedyes
Durability infoSupport for making data persistentyesyes infousing external storage systems (e.g. Cassandra, DynamoDB, PostgreSQL, Couchbase and others)yesyes
In-memory capabilities infoIs there an option to define some or all structures to be held in-memory only.yesyes inforecommended only for testing and developmentnoyes
User concepts infoAccess controlfine grained access rights according to SQL-standardnoyes infousers and table-level permissionsFine-grained Attribute-Based Access Control (ABAC) in addition to typical coarse-grained Role-Based Access Control (RBAC) according to SQL-standard. Pluggable authentication with supported standards (LDAP, Active Directory, Kerberos)
More information provided by the system vendor
Amazon RedshiftDatomicRethinkDBVirtuoso
Specific characteristicsVirtuoso is a modern multi-model RDBMS for managing data represented as tabular relations...
» more
Competitive advantagesPerformance & Scale — as exemplified by DBpedia and the LOD Cloud it spawned, i.e.,...
» more
Typical application scenariosUsed for — Analytics/BI Conceptual Data Virtualization Enterprise Knowledge Graphs...
» more
Key customersBroad use across enterprises and governments including — European Union (EU) US Government...
» more
Market metricsLargest installed-base ​of Multi-Model RDBMS for AI-friendly Knowledge Graphs Platform...
» more
Licensing and pricing modelsAvailable in both Commercial Enterprise and Open Source (GPL v2) Editions Feature...
» more

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More resources
Amazon RedshiftDatomicRethinkDBVirtuoso
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