DBMS > Amazon Neptune vs. PostgreSQL vs. Stardog
System Properties Comparison Amazon Neptune vs. PostgreSQL vs. Stardog
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|Editorial information provided by DB-Engines
|Amazon Neptune Xexclude from comparison
|PostgreSQL Xexclude from comparison
|Stardog Xexclude from comparison
|Fast, reliable graph database built for the cloud
|Widely used open source RDBMS Developed as objectoriented DBMS (Postgres), gradually enhanced with 'standards' like SQL
|Enterprise Knowledge Graph platform and graph DBMS with high availability, high performance reasoning, and virtualization
|Primary database model
|Relational DBMS with object oriented extensions, e.g.: user defined types/functions and inheritance. Handling of key/value pairs with hstore module.
|Secondary database models
Graph DBMS with Apache Age
Vector DBMS with pgvector extension
|PostgreSQL Global Development Group www.postgresql.org/developer
|1989 1989: Postgres, 1996: PostgreSQL
|16.2, February 2024
|7.3.0, May 2020
|License Commercial or Open Source
|Open Source BSD
|commercial 60-day fully-featured trial license; 1-year fully-featured non-commercial use license for academics/students
|Cloud-based only Only available as a cloud service
|DBaaS offerings (sponsored links) Database as a Service
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|Aiven for PostgreSQL: Fully managed PostgreSQL for developers with 70+ extensions and flexible orchestration tools.
|Server operating systems
|schema-free and OWL/RDFS-schema support
|Typing predefined data types such as float or date
|XML support Some form of processing data in XML format, e.g. support for XML data structures, and/or support for XPath, XQuery or XSLT.
|yes specific XML-type available, but no XML query functionality.
|no Import/export of XML data possible
|yes supports real-time indexing in full-text and geospatial
|SQL Support of SQL
|yes standard with numerous extensions
|Yes, compatible with all major SQL variants through dedicated BI/SQL Server
|APIs and other access methods
RDF 1.1 / SPARQL 1.1
native C library
streaming API for large objects
|GraphQL query language
Jena RDF API
Sesame REST HTTP Protocol
|Supported programming languages
|Server-side scripts Stored procedures
|user defined functions realized in proprietary language PL/pgSQL or with common languages like Perl, Python, Tcl etc.
|user defined functions and aggregates, HTTP Server extensions in Java
|yes via event handlers
|Partitioning methods Methods for storing different data on different nodes
|partitioning by range, list and (since PostgreSQL 11) by hash
|Replication methods Methods for redundantly storing data on multiple nodes
|Multi-availability zones high availability, asynchronous replication for up to 15 read replicas within a single region. Global database clusters consists of a primary write DB cluster in one region, and up to five secondary read DB clusters in different regions. Each secondary region can have up to 16 reader instances.
|Source-replica replication other methods possible by using 3rd party extensions
|Multi-source replication in HA-Cluster
|MapReduce Offers an API for user-defined Map/Reduce methods
|Consistency concepts Methods to ensure consistency in a distributed system
|Immediate Consistency in HA-Cluster
|Foreign keys Referential integrity
|yes Relationships in graphs
|yes relationships in graphs
|Transaction concepts Support to ensure data integrity after non-atomic manipulations of data
|Concurrency Support for concurrent manipulation of data
|Durability Support for making data persistent
|yes with encyption-at-rest
|In-memory capabilities Is there an option to define some or all structures to be held in-memory only.
|User concepts Access control
|Access rights for users and roles can be defined via the AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM)
|fine grained access rights according to SQL-standard
|Access rights for users and roles
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