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DBMS > Amazon Neptune vs. Microsoft SQL Server vs. Neo4j vs. Stardog

System Properties Comparison Amazon Neptune vs. Microsoft SQL Server vs. Neo4j vs. Stardog

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Editorial information provided by DB-Engines
NameAmazon Neptune  Xexclude from comparisonMicrosoft SQL Server  Xexclude from comparisonNeo4j  Xexclude from comparisonStardog  Xexclude from comparison
DescriptionFast, reliable graph database built for the cloudMicrosofts flagship relational DBMSOpen source graph databaseEnterprise Knowledge Graph platform and graph DBMS with high availability, high performance reasoning, and virtualization
Primary database modelGraph DBMS
RDF store
Relational DBMSGraph DBMSGraph DBMS
RDF store
Secondary database modelsDocument store
Graph DBMS
Spatial DBMS
DB-Engines Ranking infomeasures the popularity of database management systemsranking trend
Trend Chart
Score1.90
Rank#119  Overall
#8  Graph DBMS
#5  RDF stores
Score1007.97
Rank#3  Overall
#3  Relational DBMS
Score51.04
Rank#20  Overall
#1  Graph DBMS
Score1.63
Rank#127  Overall
#9  Graph DBMS
#6  RDF stores
Websiteaws.amazon.com/­neptunewww.microsoft.com/­en-us/­sql-serverneo4j.comwww.stardog.com
Technical documentationaws.amazon.com/­neptune/­developer-resourcesdocs.microsoft.com/­en-US/­sql/­sql-serverneo4j.com/­docsdocs.stardog.com
DeveloperAmazonMicrosoftNeo4j, Inc.Stardog-Union
Initial release2017198920072010
Current releaseSQL Server 2019, November 20194.2.4 , March 20217.3.0, May 2020
License infoCommercial or Open Sourcecommercialcommercial inforestricted free version is availableOpen Source infoGPL version3, commercial licenses availablecommercial info60-day fully-featured trial license; 1-year fully-featured non-commercial use license for academics/students
Cloud-based only infoOnly available as a cloud serviceyesnonono
DBaaS offerings (sponsored links) infoDatabase as a Service

Providers of DBaaS offerings, please contact us to be listed.
Implementation languageC++Java, ScalaJava
Server operating systemshostedLinux
Windows
Linux infoCan also be used server-less as embedded Java database.
OS X
Solaris
Windows
Linux
macOS
Windows
Data schemeschema-freeyesschema-free and schema-optionalschema-free and OWL/RDFS-schema support
Typing infopredefined data types such as float or dateyesyesyesyes
XML support infoSome form of processing data in XML format, e.g. support for XML data structures, and/or support for XPath, XQuery or XSLT.noyesno infoImport/export of XML data possible
Secondary indexesnoyesyes infopluggable indexing subsystem, by default Apache Luceneyes infosupports real-time indexing in full-text and geospatial
SQL infoSupport of SQLnoyesnoYes, compatible with all major SQL variants through dedicated BI/SQL Server
APIs and other access methodsRDF 1.1 / SPARQL 1.1
TinkerPop Gremlin 3.3
ADO.NET
JDBC
ODBC
OLE DB
Tabular Data Stream (TDS)
Bolt protocol
Cypher query language
Java API
Neo4j-OGM infoObject Graph Mapper
RESTful HTTP API
Spring Data Neo4j
TinkerPop 3
GraphQL query language
HTTP API
Jena RDF API
OWL
RDF4J API
Sesame REST HTTP Protocol
SNARL
SPARQL
Spring Data
Stardog Studio
TinkerPop 3
Supported programming languagesC#
Go
Java
JavaScript
PHP
Python
Ruby
Scala
C#
C++
Delphi
Go
Java
JavaScript (Node.js)
PHP
Python
R
Ruby
Visual Basic
.Net
Clojure
Elixir
Go
Groovy
Haskell
Java
JavaScript
Perl
PHP
Python
Ruby
Scala
.Net
Clojure
Groovy
Java
JavaScript
Python
Ruby
Server-side scripts infoStored proceduresnoTransact SQL, .NET languages, R, Python and (with SQL Server 2019) Javayes infoUser defined Procedures and Functionsuser defined functions and aggregates, HTTP Server extensions in Java
Triggersnoyesyes infovia event handleryes infovia event handlers
Partitioning methods infoMethods for storing different data on different nodesnonetables can be distributed across several files (horizontal partitioning); sharding through federationnonenone
Replication methods infoMethods for redundantly storing data on multiple nodesMulti-availability zones high availability, asynchronous replication for up to 15 read replicasyes, but depending on the SQL-Server EditionCausal Clustering using Raft protocol infoavailable in in Enterprise Version onlyMulti-source replication in HA-Cluster
MapReduce infoOffers an API for user-defined Map/Reduce methodsnononono
Consistency concepts infoMethods to ensure consistency in a distributed systemImmediate ConsistencyImmediate ConsistencyCausal and Eventual Consistency configurable in Causal Cluster setup
Immediate Consistency in stand-alone mode
Immediate Consistency in HA-Cluster
Foreign keys infoReferential integrityyes infoRelationships in graphsyesyes infoRelationships in graphsyes inforelationships in graphs
Transaction concepts infoSupport to ensure data integrity after non-atomic manipulations of dataACIDACIDACIDACID
Concurrency infoSupport for concurrent manipulation of datayesyesyesyes
Durability infoSupport for making data persistentyes infowith encyption-at-restyesyesyes
In-memory capabilities infoIs there an option to define some or all structures to be held in-memory only.yesyes
User concepts infoAccess controlAccess rights for users and roles can be defined via the AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM)fine grained access rights according to SQL-standardUsers, roles and permissions. Pluggable authentication with supported standards (LDAP, Active Directory, Kerberos)Access rights for users and roles
More information provided by the system vendor
Amazon NeptuneMicrosoft SQL ServerNeo4jStardog
Specific characteristicsNeo4j is a native graph database platform that is built to store, query, analyze...
» more
Stardog is an Enterprise Knowledge Graph platform, uniquely combining graph storage...
» more
Competitive advantagesNeo4j database is the only transactional database that combines everything you need...
» more
Stardog provides a full featureset to aid in data integration for your complex data....
» more
Typical application scenariosReal-Time Recommendations Master Data Management Identity and Access Management Network...
» more
Stardog is frequently used for: Anti-money laundering & fraud monitoring Customer...
» more
Key customersOver 300 commercial customers and over 750 startups use Neo4j. Flagship customers...
» more
Bosch, Dow Jones, Elsevier, Ericsson, Morgan Stanley, NASA, NIH, Nokia, Salesforce,...
» more
Market metricsNeo4j boasts the world's largest graph database ecosystem with more than a 15 million...
» more
Stardog's technology is based on ground-breaking research by our founders cited 10,000+...
» more
Licensing and pricing modelsGPL v3 license that can be used all the places where you might use MySQL. Neo4j Commercial...
» more
A fully-featured 60-day Trial license is available for those testing Stardog; contact...
» more
News

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We invite representatives of system vendors to contact us for updating and extending the system information,
and for displaying vendor-provided information such as key customers, competitive advantages and market metrics.

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More resources
Amazon NeptuneMicrosoft SQL ServerNeo4jStardog
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