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DBMS > Amazon Neptune vs. FoundationDB vs. Kingbase vs. LeanXcale vs. NebulaGraph

System Properties Comparison Amazon Neptune vs. FoundationDB vs. Kingbase vs. LeanXcale vs. NebulaGraph

Editorial information provided by DB-Engines
NameAmazon Neptune  Xexclude from comparisonFoundationDB  Xexclude from comparisonKingbase  Xexclude from comparisonLeanXcale  Xexclude from comparisonNebulaGraph  Xexclude from comparison
Created as commercial project in 2013, FoundationDB has been acquired by Apple in March 2015 and was withdrawn from the market. As a consequence, the product was removed from the DB-Engines ranking. In April 2018, Apple open-sourced FoundationDB and it therefore reappears in the ranking.
DescriptionFast, reliable graph database built for the cloudOrdered key-value store. Core features are complimented by layers.An enterprise-class RDBMS compatible with PostgreSQL and Oracle and widely used in China.A highly scalable full ACID SQL database with fast NoSQL data ingestion and GIS capabilitiesA distributed, linear scalable, high perfomant Graph DBMS
Primary database modelGraph DBMS
RDF store
Document store infosupported via specific layer
Key-value store
Relational DBMS infosupported via specific SQL-layer
Relational DBMSKey-value store
Relational DBMS
Graph DBMS
Secondary database modelsDocument store
Spatial DBMS
DB-Engines Ranking infomeasures the popularity of database management systemsranking trend
Trend Chart
Score3.19
Rank#102  Overall
#6  Graph DBMS
#3  RDF stores
Score1.50
Rank#149  Overall
#26  Document stores
#28  Key-value stores
#72  Relational DBMS
Score0.39
Rank#263  Overall
#122  Relational DBMS
Score0.16
Rank#299  Overall
#44  Key-value stores
#138  Relational DBMS
Score1.18
Rank#169  Overall
#14  Graph DBMS
Websiteaws.amazon.com/­neptunewww.foundationdb.orgwww.kingbase.com.cnwww.leanxcale.comgithub.com/­vesoft-inc/­nebula
nebula-graph.io
Technical documentationaws.amazon.com/­neptune/­developer-resourcesapple.github.io/­foundationdbbbs.kingbase.com.cn/­chess_wenku-index.htmldocs.nebula-graph.io
DeveloperAmazonFoundationDBBeiJing KINGBASE Information technologies inc.LeanXcaleVesoft Inc.
Initial release20172013199920152019
Current release6.2.28, November 2020V8.0, August 2021
License infoCommercial or Open SourcecommercialOpen Source infoApache 2.0commercialcommercialOpen Source infoApache Version 2.0 + Common Clause 1.0
Cloud-based only infoOnly available as a cloud serviceyesnononono
DBaaS offerings (sponsored links) infoDatabase as a Service

Providers of DBaaS offerings, please contact us to be listed.
Implementation languageC++C and JavaC++
Server operating systemshostedLinux
OS X
Windows
Linux
Windows
Linux
Data schemeschema-freeschema-free infosome layers support schemasyesyesStrong typed schema
Typing infopredefined data types such as float or dateyesno infosome layers support typingyesyes
XML support infoSome form of processing data in XML format, e.g. support for XML data structures, and/or support for XPath, XQuery or XSLT.noyesno
Secondary indexesnonoyesyes infoNebula Graph internally uses the Key-Value store RocksDB for persistency. The vertices, edges, and their properties are stored as Key while their values are stored as Value. The primary indexes are per Key and secondary indexes are per Value.
SQL infoSupport of SQLnosupported in specific SQL layer onlyStandard with numerous extensionsyes infothrough Apache DerbySQL-like query language
APIs and other access methodsRDF 1.1 / SPARQL 1.1
TinkerPop Gremlin 3.3
ADO.NET
gokb
JDBC
kdbndp
ODBC
PDI
PDO
Pro*C
psycopg2
QT
JDBC
Kafka Connector
ODBC
proprietary key/value interface
Spark Connector
Browser interface
console (shell)
Proprietary native API
Query language nGQL
Supported programming languagesC#
Go
Java
JavaScript
PHP
Python
Ruby
Scala
.Net
C
C++
Go
Java
JavaScript infoNode.js
PHP
Python
Ruby
Swift
.Net
C
C++
Go
Java
JavaScript (Node.js)
Perl
PHP
Python
C
Java
Scala
C++
Go
Java
Python
Server-side scripts infoStored proceduresnoin SQL-layer onlyuser defined functions
Triggersnonoyes
Partitioning methods infoMethods for storing different data on different nodesnoneShardinghorizontal partitioning (by range, list and hash) and vertical partitioningSharding
Replication methods infoMethods for redundantly storing data on multiple nodesMulti-availability zones high availability, asynchronous replication for up to 15 read replicasyesyesCausal Clustering using Raft protocol
MapReduce infoOffers an API for user-defined Map/Reduce methodsnonononono
Consistency concepts infoMethods to ensure consistency in a distributed systemImmediate ConsistencyLinearizable consistencyImmediate ConsistencyImmediate ConsistencyImmediate Consistency
Foreign keys infoReferential integrityyes infoRelationships in graphsin SQL-layer onlyyesyesyes infoRelationships in graphs
Transaction concepts infoSupport to ensure data integrity after non-atomic manipulations of dataACIDACIDACIDACIDACID
Concurrency infoSupport for concurrent manipulation of datayesyesyesyesyes
Durability infoSupport for making data persistentyes infowith encyption-at-restyesyesyesyes infousing RocksDB
In-memory capabilities infoIs there an option to define some or all structures to be held in-memory only.yesyes
User concepts infoAccess controlAccess rights for users and roles can be defined via the AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM)nofine grained access rights according to SQL-standardRole-based access control
More information provided by the system vendor
Amazon NeptuneFoundationDBKingbaseLeanXcaleNebulaGraph
Specific characteristicsAn enterprise-class RDBMS compatible with PostgreSQL and Oracle. It has the following...
» more
Full ACID and full SQL operational database with analytical queries over operational...
» more
NebulaGraph is a truly distributed, linearly scalable, lightning-fast graph database,...
» more
Competitive advantagesComplete database management platform with Integrated Development Environment Tool,...
» more
Linear scalability upto 100s of nodes (tested with 100 nodes and TPC-C).
» more
NebulaGraph boasts the world's only graph database solution that is able to host...
» more
Typical application scenariosNew applications for transactional and mixed workloads that need to integrate with...
» more
Hybrid Transactional-Analytical Processing (HTAP) requiring an operational database...
» more
Social networking Fraud detection Knowledge graph Data warehouse management Anti...
» more
Key customersThe main customers are: China National Petroleum Corporation China Petrochemical...
» more
banking/finance/fintech, telco, insurance, traveltech, M2M/IoT, retail
» more
Currently we have some top internet companies in China implementing NebulaGraph in...
» more
Market metricsAt present, the main market is in China, but expansion to the international market...
» more
15 beta testers
» more
At our very early stage, NebulaGraph has already received 3.5k stars and thousands...
» more
Licensing and pricing modelsBusiness license. Various sales modes: for example, sales by set, sales by CPU quantity,...
» more
annual fee covering license and support based on number of physical cores
» more
NebulaGraph is open source and free to use under Apache 2.0 license and Common Clause...
» more

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More resources
Amazon NeptuneFoundationDBKingbaseLeanXcaleNebulaGraph
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