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DBMS > Amazon Neptune vs. FoundationDB vs. Immudb vs. NebulaGraph

System Properties Comparison Amazon Neptune vs. FoundationDB vs. Immudb vs. NebulaGraph

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Editorial information provided by DB-Engines
NameAmazon Neptune  Xexclude from comparisonFoundationDB  Xexclude from comparisonImmudb  Xexclude from comparisonNebulaGraph  Xexclude from comparison
Created as commercial project in 2013, FoundationDB has been acquired by Apple in March 2015 and was withdrawn from the market. As a consequence, the product was removed from the DB-Engines ranking. In April 2018, Apple open-sourced FoundationDB and it therefore reappears in the ranking.
DescriptionFast, reliable graph database built for the cloudOrdered key-value store. Core features are complimented by layers.An open source immutable (append-only) database with cryptographic verification which makes it tamper-resistant and fully auditable.A distributed, linear scalable, high perfomant Graph DBMS
Primary database modelGraph DBMS
RDF store
Document store infosupported via specific layer
Key-value store
Relational DBMS infosupported via specific SQL-layer
Key-value storeGraph DBMS
Secondary database modelsRelational DBMS
DB-Engines Ranking infomeasures the popularity of database management systemsranking trend
Trend Chart
Score3.09
Rank#107  Overall
#6  Graph DBMS
#4  RDF stores
Score1.78
Rank#144  Overall
#25  Document stores
#27  Key-value stores
#70  Relational DBMS
Score0.22
Rank#318  Overall
#44  Key-value stores
Score1.26
Rank#181  Overall
#16  Graph DBMS
Websiteaws.amazon.com/­neptunewww.foundationdb.orggithub.com/­codenotary/­immudb
www.codenotary.com/­technologies/­immudb
github.com/­vesoft-inc/­nebula
nebula-graph.io
Technical documentationaws.amazon.com/­neptune/­developer-resourcesapple.github.io/­foundationdbdocs.immudb.iodocs.nebula-graph.io
DeveloperAmazonFoundationDBCodenotaryVesoft Inc.
Initial release2017201320202019
Current release6.2.28, November 20201.2.3, April 2022
License infoCommercial or Open SourcecommercialOpen Source infoApache 2.0Open Source infoApache Version 2.0Open Source infoApache Version 2.0 + Common Clause 1.0
Cloud-based only infoOnly available as a cloud serviceyesnonono
DBaaS offerings (sponsored links) infoDatabase as a Service

Providers of DBaaS offerings, please contact us to be listed.
Implementation languageC++GoC++
Server operating systemshostedLinux
OS X
Windows
BSD
Linux
macOS
Solaris
Windows
z/OS
Linux
Data schemeschema-freeschema-free infosome layers support schemasschema-freeStrong typed schema
Typing infopredefined data types such as float or dateyesno infosome layers support typingyes
XML support infoSome form of processing data in XML format, e.g. support for XML data structures, and/or support for XPath, XQuery or XSLT.nonono
Secondary indexesnonoyesyes infoNebula Graph internally uses the Key-Value store RocksDB for persistency. The vertices, edges, and their properties are stored as Key while their values are stored as Value. The primary indexes are per Key and secondary indexes are per Value.
SQL infoSupport of SQLnosupported in specific SQL layer onlySQL-like syntaxSQL-like query language
APIs and other access methodsRDF 1.1 / SPARQL 1.1
TinkerPop Gremlin 3.3
gRPC protocol
PostgreSQL wire protocol
Browser interface
console (shell)
Proprietary native API
Query language nGQL
Supported programming languagesC#
Go
Java
JavaScript
PHP
Python
Ruby
Scala
.Net
C
C++
Go
Java
JavaScript infoNode.js
PHP
Python
Ruby
Swift
.Net
Go
Java
JavaScript (Node.js)
Python
C++
Go
Java
Python
Server-side scripts infoStored proceduresnoin SQL-layer onlyno
Triggersnonono
Partitioning methods infoMethods for storing different data on different nodesnoneShardingShardingSharding
Replication methods infoMethods for redundantly storing data on multiple nodesMulti-availability zones high availability, asynchronous replication for up to 15 read replicasyesCausal Clustering using Raft protocol
MapReduce infoOffers an API for user-defined Map/Reduce methodsnononono
Consistency concepts infoMethods to ensure consistency in a distributed systemImmediate ConsistencyLinearizable consistencyImmediate ConsistencyImmediate Consistency
Foreign keys infoReferential integrityyes infoRelationships in graphsin SQL-layer onlynoyes infoRelationships in graphs
Transaction concepts infoSupport to ensure data integrity after non-atomic manipulations of dataACIDACIDACIDACID
Concurrency infoSupport for concurrent manipulation of datayesyesyesyes
Durability infoSupport for making data persistentyes infowith encyption-at-restyesyesyes infousing RocksDB
In-memory capabilities infoIs there an option to define some or all structures to be held in-memory only.noyes
User concepts infoAccess controlAccess rights for users and roles can be defined via the AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM)noRole-based access control
More information provided by the system vendor
Amazon NeptuneFoundationDBImmudbNebulaGraph
Specific characteristicsNebulaGraph is a truly distributed, linearly scalable, lightning-fast graph database,...
» more
Competitive advantagesNebulaGraph boasts the world's only graph database solution that is able to host...
» more
Typical application scenariosSocial networking Fraud detection Knowledge graph Data warehouse management Anti...
» more
Key customersCurrently we have some top internet companies in China implementing NebulaGraph in...
» more
Market metricsAt our very early stage, NebulaGraph has already received 3.5k stars and thousands...
» more
Licensing and pricing modelsNebulaGraph is open source and free to use under Apache 2.0 license and Common Clause...
» more

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Amazon NeptuneFoundationDBImmudbNebulaGraph
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