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DBMS > Amazon Neptune vs. FoundationDB vs. Immudb vs. LeanXcale

System Properties Comparison Amazon Neptune vs. FoundationDB vs. Immudb vs. LeanXcale

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Editorial information provided by DB-Engines
NameAmazon Neptune  Xexclude from comparisonFoundationDB  Xexclude from comparisonImmudb  Xexclude from comparisonLeanXcale  Xexclude from comparison
Created as commercial project in 2013, FoundationDB has been acquired by Apple in March 2015 and was withdrawn from the market. As a consequence, the product was removed from the DB-Engines ranking. In April 2018, Apple open-sourced FoundationDB and it therefore reappears in the ranking.
DescriptionFast, reliable graph database built for the cloudOrdered key-value store. Core features are complimented by layers.An open source immutable (append-only) database with cryptographic verification which makes it tamper-resistant and fully auditable.A highly scalable full ACID SQL database with fast NoSQL data ingestion and GIS capabilities
Primary database modelGraph DBMS
RDF store
Document store infosupported via specific layer
Key-value store
Relational DBMS infosupported via specific SQL-layer
Key-value storeKey-value store
Relational DBMS
Secondary database modelsRelational DBMS
DB-Engines Ranking infomeasures the popularity of database management systemsranking trend
Trend Chart
Score3.09
Rank#107  Overall
#6  Graph DBMS
#4  RDF stores
Score1.78
Rank#144  Overall
#25  Document stores
#27  Key-value stores
#70  Relational DBMS
Score0.22
Rank#318  Overall
#44  Key-value stores
Score0.26
Rank#309  Overall
#41  Key-value stores
#140  Relational DBMS
Websiteaws.amazon.com/­neptunewww.foundationdb.orggithub.com/­codenotary/­immudb
www.codenotary.com/­technologies/­immudb
www.leanxcale.com
Technical documentationaws.amazon.com/­neptune/­developer-resourcesapple.github.io/­foundationdbdocs.immudb.io
DeveloperAmazonFoundationDBCodenotaryLeanXcale
Initial release2017201320202015
Current release6.2.28, November 20201.2.3, April 2022
License infoCommercial or Open SourcecommercialOpen Source infoApache 2.0Open Source infoApache Version 2.0commercial
Cloud-based only infoOnly available as a cloud serviceyesnonono
DBaaS offerings (sponsored links) infoDatabase as a Service

Providers of DBaaS offerings, please contact us to be listed.
Implementation languageC++Go
Server operating systemshostedLinux
OS X
Windows
BSD
Linux
macOS
Solaris
Windows
z/OS
Data schemeschema-freeschema-free infosome layers support schemasschema-freeyes
Typing infopredefined data types such as float or dateyesno infosome layers support typing
XML support infoSome form of processing data in XML format, e.g. support for XML data structures, and/or support for XPath, XQuery or XSLT.nono
Secondary indexesnonoyes
SQL infoSupport of SQLnosupported in specific SQL layer onlySQL-like syntaxyes infothrough Apache Derby
APIs and other access methodsRDF 1.1 / SPARQL 1.1
TinkerPop Gremlin 3.3
gRPC protocol
PostgreSQL wire protocol
JDBC
Kafka Connector
ODBC
proprietary key/value interface
Spark Connector
Supported programming languagesC#
Go
Java
JavaScript
PHP
Python
Ruby
Scala
.Net
C
C++
Go
Java
JavaScript infoNode.js
PHP
Python
Ruby
Swift
.Net
Go
Java
JavaScript (Node.js)
Python
C
Java
Scala
Server-side scripts infoStored proceduresnoin SQL-layer onlyno
Triggersnonono
Partitioning methods infoMethods for storing different data on different nodesnoneShardingSharding
Replication methods infoMethods for redundantly storing data on multiple nodesMulti-availability zones high availability, asynchronous replication for up to 15 read replicasyes
MapReduce infoOffers an API for user-defined Map/Reduce methodsnononono
Consistency concepts infoMethods to ensure consistency in a distributed systemImmediate ConsistencyLinearizable consistencyImmediate ConsistencyImmediate Consistency
Foreign keys infoReferential integrityyes infoRelationships in graphsin SQL-layer onlynoyes
Transaction concepts infoSupport to ensure data integrity after non-atomic manipulations of dataACIDACIDACIDACID
Concurrency infoSupport for concurrent manipulation of datayesyesyesyes
Durability infoSupport for making data persistentyes infowith encyption-at-restyesyesyes
In-memory capabilities infoIs there an option to define some or all structures to be held in-memory only.noyes
User concepts infoAccess controlAccess rights for users and roles can be defined via the AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM)no
More information provided by the system vendor
Amazon NeptuneFoundationDBImmudbLeanXcale
Specific characteristicsFull ACID and full SQL operational database with analytical queries over operational...
» more
Competitive advantagesLinear scalability upto 100s of nodes (tested with 100 nodes and TPC-C).
» more
Typical application scenariosHybrid Transactional-Analytical Processing (HTAP) requiring an operational database...
» more
Key customersbanking/finance/fintech, telco, insurance, traveltech, M2M/IoT, retail
» more
Market metrics15 beta testers
» more
Licensing and pricing modelsannual fee covering license and support based on number of physical cores
» more

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More resources
Amazon NeptuneFoundationDBImmudbLeanXcale
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