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DBMS > Amazon Neptune vs. Citus vs. PostgreSQL

System Properties Comparison Amazon Neptune vs. Citus vs. PostgreSQL

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Editorial information provided by DB-Engines
NameAmazon Neptune  Xexclude from comparisonCitus  Xexclude from comparisonPostgreSQL  Xexclude from comparison
DescriptionFast, reliable graph database built for the cloudScalable hybrid operational and analytics RDBMS for big data use cases based on PostgreSQLWidely used open source RDBMS infoDeveloped as objectoriented DBMS (Postgres), gradually enhanced with 'standards' like SQL
Primary database modelGraph DBMS
RDF store
Relational DBMSRelational DBMS infowith object oriented extensions, e.g.: user defined types/functions and inheritance. Handling of key/value pairs with hstore module.
Secondary database modelsDocument storeDocument store
Graph DBMS infowith Apache Age
Spatial DBMS
Vector DBMS infowith pgvector extension
DB-Engines Ranking infomeasures the popularity of database management systemsranking trend
Trend Chart
Score2.58
Rank#112  Overall
#9  Graph DBMS
#5  RDF stores
Score2.15
Rank#123  Overall
#60  Relational DBMS
Score645.05
Rank#4  Overall
#4  Relational DBMS
Websiteaws.amazon.com/­neptunewww.citusdata.comwww.postgresql.org
Technical documentationaws.amazon.com/­neptune/­developer-resourcesdocs.citusdata.comwww.postgresql.org/­docs
DeveloperAmazonPostgreSQL Global Development Group infowww.postgresql.org/­developer
Initial release201720101989 info1989: Postgres, 1996: PostgreSQL
Current release8.1, December 201816.2, February 2024
License infoCommercial or Open SourcecommercialOpen Source infoAGPL, commercial license also availableOpen Source infoBSD
Cloud-based only infoOnly available as a cloud serviceyesnono
DBaaS offerings (sponsored links) infoDatabase as a Service

Providers of DBaaS offerings, please contact us to be listed.
Aiven for PostgreSQL: Fully managed PostgreSQL for developers with 70+ extensions and flexible orchestration tools.
Implementation languageCC
Server operating systemshostedLinuxFreeBSD
HP-UX
Linux
NetBSD
OpenBSD
OS X
Solaris
Unix
Windows
Data schemeschema-freeyesyes
Typing infopredefined data types such as float or dateyesyesyes
XML support infoSome form of processing data in XML format, e.g. support for XML data structures, and/or support for XPath, XQuery or XSLT.noyes infospecific XML type available, but no XML query functionalityyes infospecific XML-type available, but no XML query functionality.
Secondary indexesnoyesyes
SQL infoSupport of SQLnoyes infostandard, with numerous extensionsyes infostandard with numerous extensions
APIs and other access methodsOpenCypher
RDF 1.1 / SPARQL 1.1
TinkerPop Gremlin
ADO.NET
JDBC
native C library
ODBC
streaming API for large objects
ADO.NET
JDBC
native C library
ODBC
streaming API for large objects
Supported programming languagesC#
Go
Java
JavaScript
PHP
Python
Ruby
Scala
.Net
C
C++
Delphi
Java
JavaScript (Node.js)
Perl
PHP
Python
Tcl
.Net
C
C++
Delphi
Java infoJDBC
JavaScript (Node.js)
Perl
PHP
Python
Tcl
Server-side scripts infoStored proceduresnouser defined functions inforealized in proprietary language PL/pgSQL or with common languages like Perl, Python, Tcl etc.user defined functions inforealized in proprietary language PL/pgSQL or with common languages like Perl, Python, Tcl etc.
Triggersnoyesyes
Partitioning methods infoMethods for storing different data on different nodesnoneShardingpartitioning by range, list and (since PostgreSQL 11) by hash
Replication methods infoMethods for redundantly storing data on multiple nodesMulti-availability zones high availability, asynchronous replication for up to 15 read replicas within a single region. Global database clusters consists of a primary write DB cluster in one region, and up to five secondary read DB clusters in different regions. Each secondary region can have up to 16 reader instances.Source-replica replication infoother methods possible by using 3rd party extensionsSource-replica replication infoother methods possible by using 3rd party extensions
MapReduce infoOffers an API for user-defined Map/Reduce methodsnonono
Consistency concepts infoMethods to ensure consistency in a distributed systemImmediate ConsistencyImmediate ConsistencyImmediate Consistency
Foreign keys infoReferential integrityyes infoRelationships in graphsyesyes
Transaction concepts infoSupport to ensure data integrity after non-atomic manipulations of dataACIDACIDACID
Concurrency infoSupport for concurrent manipulation of datayesyesyes
Durability infoSupport for making data persistentyes infowith encyption-at-restyesyes
In-memory capabilities infoIs there an option to define some or all structures to be held in-memory only.nono
User concepts infoAccess controlAccess rights for users and roles can be defined via the AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM)fine grained access rights according to SQL-standardfine grained access rights according to SQL-standard

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More resources
Amazon NeptuneCitusPostgreSQL
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Conferences, events and webinars

Monitoring PostgreSQL with Redgate Monitor
Webinar, 10-11am CT / 4-5pm BST, 22 May 2024

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