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DBMS > Amazon Neptune vs. Citus vs. GraphDB vs. Stardog

System Properties Comparison Amazon Neptune vs. Citus vs. GraphDB vs. Stardog

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Editorial information provided by DB-Engines
NameAmazon Neptune  Xexclude from comparisonCitus  Xexclude from comparisonGraphDB infoformer name: OWLIM  Xexclude from comparisonStardog  Xexclude from comparison
DescriptionFast, reliable graph database built for the cloudScalable hybrid operational and analytics RDBMS for big data use cases based on PostgreSQLEnterprise-ready RDF and graph database with efficient reasoning, cluster and external index synchronization support. It supports also SQL JDBC access to Knowledge Graph and GraphQL over SPARQL.Enterprise Knowledge Graph platform and graph DBMS with high availability, high performance reasoning, and virtualization
Primary database modelGraph DBMS
RDF store
Relational DBMSGraph DBMS
RDF store
Graph DBMS
RDF store
Secondary database modelsDocument store
DB-Engines Ranking infomeasures the popularity of database management systemsranking trend
Trend Chart
Score1.90
Rank#119  Overall
#8  Graph DBMS
#5  RDF stores
Score1.34
Rank#146  Overall
#72  Relational DBMS
Score2.24
Rank#108  Overall
#6  Graph DBMS
#4  RDF stores
Score1.63
Rank#127  Overall
#9  Graph DBMS
#6  RDF stores
Websiteaws.amazon.com/­neptunewww.citusdata.comwww.ontotext.comwww.stardog.com
Technical documentationaws.amazon.com/­neptune/­developer-resourcesdocs.citusdata.comgraphdb.ontotext.com/­documentationdocs.stardog.com
DeveloperAmazonOntotextStardog-Union
Initial release2017201020002010
Current release8.1, December 20189.6, February 20217.3.0, May 2020
License infoCommercial or Open SourcecommercialOpen Source infoAGPL, commercial license also availablecommercial infoSome plugins of GraphDB Workbench are open sourcedcommercial info60-day fully-featured trial license; 1-year fully-featured non-commercial use license for academics/students
Cloud-based only infoOnly available as a cloud serviceyesnono infoNamed S4, Ontotext provides a semantic graph database based on GraphDB in the cloud.no
DBaaS offerings (sponsored links) infoDatabase as a Service

Providers of DBaaS offerings, please contact us to be listed.
Implementation languageCJavaJava
Server operating systemshostedLinuxAll OS with a Java VM
Linux
OS X
Windows
Linux
macOS
Windows
Data schemeschema-freeyesschema-free and OWL/RDFS-schema support; RDF shapesschema-free and OWL/RDFS-schema support
Typing infopredefined data types such as float or dateyesyesyesyes
XML support infoSome form of processing data in XML format, e.g. support for XML data structures, and/or support for XPath, XQuery or XSLT.noyes infospecific XML type available, but no XML query functionalitynono infoImport/export of XML data possible
Secondary indexesnoyesyes, supports real-time synchronization and indexing in SOLR/Elastic search/Lucene and GeoSPARQL geometry data indexesyes infosupports real-time indexing in full-text and geospatial
SQL infoSupport of SQLnoyes infostandard, with numerous extensionsstored SPARQL accessed as SQL using Apache Calcite through JDBC/ODBCYes, compatible with all major SQL variants through dedicated BI/SQL Server
APIs and other access methodsRDF 1.1 / SPARQL 1.1
TinkerPop Gremlin 3.3
ADO.NET
JDBC
native C library
ODBC
streaming API for large objects
GeoSPARQL
GraphQL
GraphQL Federation
Java API
JDBC
RDF4J API
RDFS
RIO
Sail API
Sesame REST HTTP Protocol
SPARQL 1.1
GraphQL query language
HTTP API
Jena RDF API
OWL
RDF4J API
Sesame REST HTTP Protocol
SNARL
SPARQL
Spring Data
Stardog Studio
TinkerPop 3
Supported programming languagesC#
Go
Java
JavaScript
PHP
Python
Ruby
Scala
.Net
C
C++
Delphi
Java
JavaScript (Node.js)
Perl
PHP
Python
Tcl
.Net
C#
Clojure
Java
JavaScript (Node.js)
PHP
Python
Ruby
Scala
.Net
Clojure
Groovy
Java
JavaScript
Python
Ruby
Server-side scripts infoStored proceduresnouser defined functions inforealized in proprietary language PL/pgSQL or with common languages like Perl, Python, Tcl etc.well-defined plugin interfaces; JavaScript server-side extensibilityuser defined functions and aggregates, HTTP Server extensions in Java
Triggersnoyesnoyes infovia event handlers
Partitioning methods infoMethods for storing different data on different nodesnoneShardingnonenone
Replication methods infoMethods for redundantly storing data on multiple nodesMulti-availability zones high availability, asynchronous replication for up to 15 read replicasSource-replica replication infoother methods possible by using 3rd party extensionsMulti-source replicationMulti-source replication in HA-Cluster
MapReduce infoOffers an API for user-defined Map/Reduce methodsnononono
Consistency concepts infoMethods to ensure consistency in a distributed systemImmediate ConsistencyImmediate ConsistencyImmediate Consistency, Eventual consistency (configurable in cluster mode per master or individual client request)Immediate Consistency in HA-Cluster
Foreign keys infoReferential integrityyes infoRelationships in graphsyesyes infoConstraint checkingyes inforelationships in graphs
Transaction concepts infoSupport to ensure data integrity after non-atomic manipulations of dataACIDACIDACIDACID
Concurrency infoSupport for concurrent manipulation of datayesyesyesyes
Durability infoSupport for making data persistentyes infowith encyption-at-restyesyesyes
In-memory capabilities infoIs there an option to define some or all structures to be held in-memory only.noyes
User concepts infoAccess controlAccess rights for users and roles can be defined via the AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM)fine grained access rights according to SQL-standardDefault Basic authentication through RDF4J client, or via Java when run with cURL, default token-based in the Workbench or via Rest API, optional access through OpenID or Kerberos single sign-on.Access rights for users and roles
More information provided by the system vendor
Amazon NeptuneCitusGraphDB infoformer name: OWLIMStardog
Specific characteristicsGraphDB Enterprise is a high-performance semantic repository created by Ontotext....
» more
Stardog is an Enterprise Knowledge Graph platform, uniquely combining graph storage...
» more
Competitive advantagesGraphDB allows you to link text and data in big knowledge graphs. It’s easy to experiment...
» more
Stardog provides a full featureset to aid in data integration for your complex data....
» more
Typical application scenariosMetadata enrichment and management, linked open data publishing, semantic inferencing...
» more
Stardog is frequently used for: Anti-money laundering & fraud monitoring Customer...
» more
Key customersBBC, Press Association, Financial Times, DK, Euromoney, The British Museum, Getty...
» more
Bosch, Dow Jones, Elsevier, Ericsson, Morgan Stanley, NASA, NIH, Nokia, Salesforce,...
» more
Market metricsGraphDB is the most utilized semantic triplestore for mission-critical enterprise...
» more
Stardog's technology is based on ground-breaking research by our founders cited 10,000+...
» more
Licensing and pricing modelsGraphDB-Free is free to use. SE and Enterprise are licensed per CPU-Core used. Perpetual...
» more
A fully-featured 60-day Trial license is available for those testing Stardog; contact...
» more

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More resources
Amazon NeptuneCitusGraphDB infoformer name: OWLIMStardog
Conferences and events

Data Virtualization with GraphDB
Webinar, 4pm GMT / 5pm CEST / 6pm EET / 10am EST / 7am PST, 4 February 2021 (finished)

Generate Value from Your Knowledge Graph in Days
11am EST | 4pm GMT | 5pm CET, 4 March 2021 (finished)

Accelerated R&D with a FAIR Data Fabric in Life Sciences
Webinar, 7am PDT / 10am EDT / 5pm CEST / 6pm EEST, 14 April 2021 (finished)

Recent citations in the news

Catching up with Amazon Neptune
26 November 2019, ZDNet

Amazon Neptune review: A scalable graph database for OLTP
13 May 2019, InfoWorld

AWS Announces General Availability of Amazon Neptune
30 May 2018, Business Wire

Amazon unveils dozens of machine learning tools
9 December 2020, TechRepublic

AWS releases Amazon Neptune to help health organizations build apps
1 June 2018, Healthcare IT News

provided by Google News

Microsoft acquires Citus Data
24 January 2019, TechCrunch

Microsoft Expands Azure PostgreSQL Moxy Through Citus Data Purchase
30 January 2019, Data Center Knowledge

Citus Data Announces Citus Cloud Database Support for HIPAA and SOC 2 Type 2 Compliance
13 November 2018, Business Wire

Database Software Global Market Report 2020-30: Covid 19 Impact and Recovery
16 September 2020, GlobeNewswire

Oracle takes a new twist on MySQL: Adding data warehousing to the cloud service
2 December 2020, ZDNet

provided by Google News

Ontotext Platform 3.4 Brings Better Search and Aggregation in Knowledge Graphs
15 April 2021, PRNewswire

Ontotext GraphDB 9.4 Enables SQL Access to Knowledge Graphs and Visual Mapping of Tabular Data to RDF
11 September 2020, PRNewswire

eccenca and Ontotext Partner to Advance Enterprise Data Management
3 February 2021, PRNewswire

Johnson Controls Selects Ontotext's GraphDB for the New Version of Metasys Building Automation System
18 November 2020, PRNewswire

Ontotext's GraphDB 9.2 Supports RDF* to Match the Expressivity of Property Graphs
30 April 2020, PRNewswire

provided by Google News

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