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DBMS > Amazon DynamoDB vs. Citus vs. Galaxybase vs. Virtuoso

System Properties Comparison Amazon DynamoDB vs. Citus vs. Galaxybase vs. Virtuoso

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Editorial information provided by DB-Engines
NameAmazon DynamoDB  Xexclude from comparisonCitus  Xexclude from comparisonGalaxybase  Xexclude from comparisonVirtuoso  Xexclude from comparison
DescriptionHosted, scalable database service by Amazon with the data stored in Amazons cloudScalable hybrid operational and analytics RDBMS for big data use cases based on PostgreSQLScalable, ACID-compliant native distributed parallel graph platformVirtuoso is a multi-model hybrid-RDBMS that supports management of data represented as relational tables and/or property graphs
Primary database modelDocument store
Key-value store
Relational DBMSGraph DBMSDocument store
Graph DBMS
Native XML DBMS
Relational DBMS
RDF store
Search engine
Secondary database modelsDocument storeSpatial DBMS
DB-Engines Ranking infomeasures the popularity of database management systemsranking trend
Trend Chart
Score88.35
Rank#15  Overall
#2  Document stores
#2  Key-value stores
Score2.34
Rank#125  Overall
#62  Relational DBMS
Score0.09
Rank#370  Overall
#36  Graph DBMS
Score5.72
Rank#75  Overall
#14  Document stores
#4  Graph DBMS
#2  Native XML DBMS
#40  Relational DBMS
#2  RDF stores
#10  Search engines
Websiteaws.amazon.com/­dynamodbwww.citusdata.comgalaxybase.comvirtuoso.openlinksw.com
Technical documentationdocs.aws.amazon.com/­dynamodbdocs.citusdata.comdocs.openlinksw.com/­virtuoso
DeveloperAmazonChuanglin(Createlink) Technology Co., Ltd 浙江创邻科技有限公司OpenLink Software
Initial release2012201020171998
Current release8.1, December 2018Nov 20, November 20217.2.7, May 2022
License infoCommercial or Open Sourcecommercial infofree tier for a limited amount of database operationsOpen Source infoAGPL, commercial license also availablecommercialOpen Source infoGPLv2, extended commercial license available
Cloud-based only infoOnly available as a cloud serviceyesnonono
DBaaS offerings (sponsored links) infoDatabase as a Service

Providers of DBaaS offerings, please contact us to be listed.
Implementation languageCC and JavaC
Server operating systemshostedLinuxLinuxAIX
FreeBSD
HP-UX
Linux
OS X
Solaris
Windows
Data schemeschema-freeyesStrong typed schemayes infoSQL - Standard relational schema
RDF - Quad (S, P, O, G) or Triple (S, P, O)
XML - DTD, XML Schema
DAV - freeform filesystem objects, plus User Defined Types a/k/a Dynamic Extension Type
Typing infopredefined data types such as float or dateyesyesyesyes
XML support infoSome form of processing data in XML format, e.g. support for XML data structures, and/or support for XPath, XQuery or XSLT.yes infospecific XML type available, but no XML query functionalitynoyes
Secondary indexesyesyesyesyes
SQL infoSupport of SQLnoyes infostandard, with numerous extensionsnoyes infoSQL-92, SQL-200x, SQL-3, SQLX
APIs and other access methodsRESTful HTTP APIADO.NET
JDBC
native C library
ODBC
streaming API for large objects
Browser interface
console (shell)
Graph API (Gremlin)
OpenCypher
Proprietary native API
ADO.NET
GeoSPARQL
HTTP API
JDBC
Jena RDF API
ODBC
OLE DB
RDF4J API
RESTful HTTP API
Sesame REST HTTP Protocol
SOAP webservices
SPARQL 1.1
WebDAV
XPath
XQuery
XSLT
Supported programming languages.Net
ColdFusion
Erlang
Groovy
Java
JavaScript
Perl
PHP
Python
Ruby
.Net
C
C++
Delphi
Java
JavaScript (Node.js)
Perl
PHP
Python
Tcl
Go
Java
Python
.Net
C
C#
C++
Java
JavaScript
Perl
PHP
Python
Ruby
Visual Basic
Server-side scripts infoStored proceduresnouser defined functions inforealized in proprietary language PL/pgSQL or with common languages like Perl, Python, Tcl etc.user defined procedures and functionsyes infoVirtuoso PL
Triggersyes infoby integration with AWS Lambdayesyes
Partitioning methods infoMethods for storing different data on different nodesShardingShardingShardingyes
Replication methods infoMethods for redundantly storing data on multiple nodesyesSource-replica replication infoother methods possible by using 3rd party extensionsChain, star, and bi-directional replication
Multi-source replication
Source-replica replication
MapReduce infoOffers an API for user-defined Map/Reduce methodsno infomay be implemented via Amazon Elastic MapReduce (Amazon EMR)nonoyes
Consistency concepts infoMethods to ensure consistency in a distributed systemEventual Consistency
Immediate Consistency infocan be specified for read operations
Immediate ConsistencyImmediate ConsistencyImmediate Consistency
Foreign keys infoReferential integritynoyesyes infoRelationships in graphsyes
Transaction concepts infoSupport to ensure data integrity after non-atomic manipulations of dataACID infoACID across one or more tables within a single AWS account and regionACIDACIDACID
Concurrency infoSupport for concurrent manipulation of datayesyesyesyes
Durability infoSupport for making data persistentyesyesyesyes
In-memory capabilities infoIs there an option to define some or all structures to be held in-memory only.noyesyes
User concepts infoAccess controlAccess rights for users and roles can be defined via the AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM)fine grained access rights according to SQL-standardRole-based access controlFine-grained Attribute-Based Access Control (ABAC) in addition to typical coarse-grained Role-Based Access Control (RBAC) according to SQL-standard. Pluggable authentication with supported standards (LDAP, Active Directory, Kerberos)
More information provided by the system vendor
Amazon DynamoDBCitusGalaxybaseVirtuoso
Specific characteristicsVirtuoso is a modern multi-model RDBMS for managing data represented as tabular relations...
» more
Competitive advantagesPerformance & Scale — as exemplified by DBpedia and the LOD Cloud it spawned, i.e.,...
» more
Typical application scenariosUsed for — Analytics/BI Conceptual Data Virtualization Enterprise Knowledge Graphs...
» more
Key customersBroad use across enterprises and governments including — European Union (EU) US Government...
» more
Market metricsLargest installed-base ​of Multi-Model RDBMS for AI-friendly Knowledge Graphs Platform...
» more
Licensing and pricing modelsAvailable in both Commercial Enterprise and Open Source (GPL v2) Editions Feature...
» more

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More resources
Amazon DynamoDBCitusGalaxybaseVirtuoso
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