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DBMS > Alibaba Cloud ApsaraDB for PolarDB vs. IBM Db2 warehouse vs. PostgreSQL vs. Virtuoso

System Properties Comparison Alibaba Cloud ApsaraDB for PolarDB vs. IBM Db2 warehouse vs. PostgreSQL vs. Virtuoso

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Editorial information provided by DB-Engines
NameAlibaba Cloud ApsaraDB for PolarDB  Xexclude from comparisonIBM Db2 warehouse infoformerly named IBM dashDB  Xexclude from comparisonPostgreSQL  Xexclude from comparisonVirtuoso  Xexclude from comparison
DescriptionA cloud-native relational database compatible with MySQL, PostgreSQL, and Oracle. Designed for business critical applications.Cloud-based data warehousing serviceWidely used open source RDBMS infoDeveloped as objectoriented DBMS (Postgres), gradually enhanced with 'standards' like SQLVirtuoso is a multi-model hybrid-RDBMS that supports management of data represented as relational tables and/or property graphs
Primary database modelRelational DBMSRelational DBMSRelational DBMS infowith object oriented extensions, e.g.: user defined types/functions and inheritance. Handling of key/value pairs with hstore module.Document store
Graph DBMS
Native XML DBMS
Relational DBMS
RDF store
Search engine
Secondary database modelsDocument store
Spatial DBMS
Spatial DBMS
DB-Engines Ranking infomeasures the popularity of database management systemsranking trend
Trend Chart
Score0.66
Rank#216  Overall
#107  Relational DBMS
Score2.10
Rank#120  Overall
#59  Relational DBMS
Score597.27
Rank#4  Overall
#4  Relational DBMS
Score4.81
Rank#78  Overall
#12  Document stores
#4  Graph DBMS
#2  Native XML DBMS
#43  Relational DBMS
#2  RDF stores
#9  Search engines
Websitewww.alibabacloud.com/­product/­polardbwww.ibm.com/­products/­db2-warehousewww.postgresql.orgvirtuoso.openlinksw.com
Technical documentationwww.alibabacloud.com/­help/­doc-detail/­58764.htmwww.postgresql.org/­docsdocs.openlinksw.com/­virtuoso
DeveloperAlibabaIBMPostgreSQL Global Development Group infowww.postgresql.org/­developerOpenLink Software
Initial release20141989 info1989: Postgres, 1996: PostgreSQL1998
Current release14.1, November 202108.03.3316, March 2020
License infoCommercial or Open SourcecommercialcommercialOpen Source infoBSDOpen Source infoGPLv2, extended commercial license available
Cloud-based only infoOnly available as a cloud serviceyesyesnono
DBaaS offerings (sponsored links) infoDatabase as a Service

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Implementation languageCC
Server operating systemshostedhostedFreeBSD
HP-UX
Linux
NetBSD
OpenBSD
OS X
Solaris
Unix
Windows
AIX
FreeBSD
HP-UX
Linux
OS X
Solaris
Windows
Data schemeyesyesyesyes infoSQL - Standard relational schema
RDF - Quad (S, P, O, G) or Triple (S, P, O)
XML - DTD, XML Schema
DAV - freeform filesystem objects, plus User Defined Types a/k/a Dynamic Extension Type
Typing infopredefined data types such as float or dateyesyesyesyes
XML support infoSome form of processing data in XML format, e.g. support for XML data structures, and/or support for XPath, XQuery or XSLT.yesno infoImport/export of XML data possibleyes infospecific XML-type available, but no XML query functionality.yes
Secondary indexesyesyesyesyes
SQL infoSupport of SQLyesyesyes infostandard with numerous extensionsyes infoSQL-92, SQL-200x, SQL-3, SQLX
APIs and other access methodsJDBC
ODBC
.NET Client API
JDBC
ODBC
OLE DB
ADO.NET
JDBC
native C library
ODBC
streaming API for large objects
ADO.NET
GeoSPARQL
HTTP API
JDBC
Jena RDF API
ODBC
OLE DB
RDF4J API
RESTful HTTP API
Sesame REST HTTP Protocol
SOAP webservices
SPARQL 1.1
WebDAV
XPath
XQuery
XSLT
Supported programming languagesJava
Python
Java
JavaScript (Node.js)
Perl
PHP
Python
R
Ruby
.Net
C
C++
Delphi
Java infoJDBC
JavaScript (Node.js)
Perl
PHP
Python
Tcl
.Net
C
C#
C++
Java
JavaScript
Perl
PHP
Python
Ruby
Visual Basic
Server-side scripts infoStored proceduresyesPL/SQL, SQL PLuser defined functions inforealized in proprietary language PL/pgSQL or with common languages like Perl, Python, Tcl etc.yes infoVirtuoso PL
Triggersyesyesyesyes
Partitioning methods infoMethods for storing different data on different nodesSharding infoImplicit feature of the cloud serviceShardingpartitioning by range, list and (since PostgreSQL 11) by hashyes
Replication methods infoMethods for redundantly storing data on multiple nodesyes infoImplicit feature of the cloud serviceyesSource-replica replication infoother methods possible by using 3rd party extensionsChain, star, and bi-directional replication
Multi-source replication
Source-replica replication
MapReduce infoOffers an API for user-defined Map/Reduce methodsnononoyes
Consistency concepts infoMethods to ensure consistency in a distributed systemImmediate ConsistencyImmediate ConsistencyImmediate ConsistencyImmediate Consistency
Foreign keys infoReferential integrityyesyesyesyes
Transaction concepts infoSupport to ensure data integrity after non-atomic manipulations of dataACIDACIDACIDACID
Concurrency infoSupport for concurrent manipulation of datayesyesyesyes
Durability infoSupport for making data persistentyesyesyesyes
In-memory capabilities infoIs there an option to define some or all structures to be held in-memory only.yesyesnoyes
User concepts infoAccess controlfine grained access rights according to SQL-standardfine grained access rights according to SQL-standardfine grained access rights according to SQL-standardFine-grained Attribute-Based Access Control (ABAC) in addition to typical coarse-grained Role-Based Access Control (RBAC) according to SQL-standard. Pluggable authentication with supported standards (LDAP, Active Directory, Kerberos)
More information provided by the system vendor
Alibaba Cloud ApsaraDB for PolarDBIBM Db2 warehouse infoformerly named IBM dashDBPostgreSQLVirtuoso
Specific characteristicsApsaraDB for PolarDB is a cloud-native relational database 100% compatible with MySQL...
» more
Virtuoso is a modern multi-model RDBMS for managing data represented as tabular relations...
» more
Competitive advantagesWebinar: Top Scientists Live: Tech Secrets to Double 11's Success Revealed. White...
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Performance & Scale — as exemplified by DBpedia and the LOD Cloud it spawned, i.e.,...
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Typical application scenariosCreating a Robust Cloud-Based Database for Fintech, E-Commerce and Gaming. Learn...
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Used for — Analytics/BI Conceptual Data Virtualization Enterprise Knowledge Graphs...
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Key customersBroad use across enterprises and governments including — European Union (EU) US Government...
» more
Market metricsLargest installed-base ​of Multi-Model RDBMS for AI-friendly Knowledge Graphs Platform...
» more
Licensing and pricing modelsSpecification and pricing. You can use either of the following billing methods to...
» more
Available in both Commercial Enterprise and Open Source (GPL v2) Editions Feature...
» more

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More resources
Alibaba Cloud ApsaraDB for PolarDBIBM Db2 warehouse infoformerly named IBM dashDBPostgreSQLVirtuoso
DB-Engines blog posts

Driving the Future of PostgreSQL Adoption
15 November 2021,  Umair Shahid, Percona (sponsor) 

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Postgres Build 2021
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