DBMS > 4D vs. PostgreSQL vs. TimesTen
System Properties Comparison 4D vs. PostgreSQL vs. TimesTen
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|Editorial information provided by DB-Engines|
|Name||4D former name: 4th Dimension Xexclude from comparison||PostgreSQL Xexclude from comparison||TimesTen Xexclude from comparison|
|Description||Application development environment with integrated database management system||Widely used open source RDBMS Developed as objectoriented DBMS (Postgres), gradually enhanced with 'standards' like SQL||In-Memory RDBMS compatible to Oracle|
|Primary database model||Relational DBMS||Relational DBMS with object oriented extensions, e.g.: user defined types/functions and inheritance. Handling of key/value pairs with hstore module.||Relational DBMS|
|Secondary database models||Document store|
|Developer||4D, Inc||PostgreSQL Global Development Group www.postgresql.org/developer||Oracle, TimesTen Performance Software, HP originally founded in HP Labs it was acquired by Oracle in 2005|
|Initial release||1984||1989 1989: Postgres, 1996: PostgreSQL||1998|
|Current release||v18 R5, January 2021||13.2 , February 2021||11 Release 2 (184.108.40.206.0)|
|License Commercial or Open Source||commercial||Open Source BSD||commercial|
|Cloud-based only Only available as a cloud service||no||no||no|
|DBaaS offerings (sponsored links) Database as a Service|
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|Server operating systems||OS X|
|Typing predefined data types such as float or date||yes||yes||yes|
|XML support Some form of processing data in XML format, e.g. support for XML data structures, and/or support for XPath, XQuery or XSLT.||yes||yes specific XML-type available, but no XML query functionality.||no|
|SQL Support of SQL||yes close to SQL 92||yes standard with numerous extensions||yes|
|APIs and other access methods||ODBC|
RESTful HTTP API by using 4D Mobile
native C library
streaming API for large objects
Oracle Call Interface (OCI)
|Supported programming languages||4D proprietary IDE|
|Server-side scripts Stored procedures||yes||user defined functions realized in proprietary language PL/pgSQL or with common languages like Perl, Python, Tcl etc.||PL/SQL|
|Partitioning methods Methods for storing different data on different nodes||none||partitioning by range, list and (since PostgreSQL 11) by hash||none|
|Replication methods Methods for redundantly storing data on multiple nodes||Multi-source replication||Source-replica replication other methods possible by using 3rd party extensions||Multi-source replication|
|MapReduce Offers an API for user-defined Map/Reduce methods||no||no||no|
|Consistency concepts Methods to ensure consistency in a distributed system||Immediate Consistency||Immediate Consistency||Immediate Consistency or Eventual Consistency depending on configuration|
|Foreign keys Referential integrity||yes||yes||yes|
|Transaction concepts Support to ensure data integrity after non-atomic manipulations of data||ACID||ACID||ACID|
|Concurrency Support for concurrent manipulation of data||yes||yes||yes|
|Durability Support for making data persistent||yes||yes||yes by means of logfiles and checkpoints|
|In-memory capabilities Is there an option to define some or all structures to be held in-memory only.||no||no||yes|
|User concepts Access control||Users and groups||fine grained access rights according to SQL-standard||fine grained access rights according to SQL-standard|
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|3rd parties||CYBERTEC is your professional partner for PostgreSQL services and Data Science since 2000. With offices in Austria, Uruguay, Estonia, Poland, South Africa and Switzerland, CYBERTEC operates worldwide and is here for you 24/7! |
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|4D former name: 4th Dimension||PostgreSQL||TimesTen|
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