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DBMS > 4D vs. IBM Db2 warehouse vs. PostgreSQL vs. Virtuoso

System Properties Comparison 4D vs. IBM Db2 warehouse vs. PostgreSQL vs. Virtuoso

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Editorial information provided by DB-Engines
Name4D infoformer name: 4th Dimension  Xexclude from comparisonIBM Db2 warehouse infoformerly named IBM dashDB  Xexclude from comparisonPostgreSQL  Xexclude from comparisonVirtuoso  Xexclude from comparison
DescriptionApplication development environment with integrated database management systemCloud-based data warehousing serviceWidely used open source RDBMS infoDeveloped as objectoriented DBMS (Postgres), gradually enhanced with 'standards' like SQLVirtuoso is a multi-model hybrid-RDBMS that supports management of data represented as relational tables and/or property graphs
Primary database modelRelational DBMSRelational DBMSRelational DBMS infowith object oriented extensions, e.g.: user defined types/functions and inheritance. Handling of key/value pairs with hstore module.Document store
Graph DBMS
Native XML DBMS
Relational DBMS
RDF store
Search engine
Secondary database modelsDocument store
Spatial DBMS
Spatial DBMS
DB-Engines Ranking infomeasures the popularity of database management systemsranking trend
Trend Chart
Score2.92
Rank#106  Overall
#54  Relational DBMS
Score2.10
Rank#120  Overall
#59  Relational DBMS
Score597.27
Rank#4  Overall
#4  Relational DBMS
Score4.81
Rank#78  Overall
#12  Document stores
#4  Graph DBMS
#2  Native XML DBMS
#43  Relational DBMS
#2  RDF stores
#9  Search engines
Websitewww.4d.comwww.ibm.com/­products/­db2-warehousewww.postgresql.orgvirtuoso.openlinksw.com
Technical documentationlivedoc.4d.comwww.postgresql.org/­docsdocs.openlinksw.com/­virtuoso
Developer4D, IncIBMPostgreSQL Global Development Group infowww.postgresql.org/­developerOpenLink Software
Initial release198420141989 info1989: Postgres, 1996: PostgreSQL1998
Current releasev18 R5, January 202114.1, November 202108.03.3316, March 2020
License infoCommercial or Open SourcecommercialcommercialOpen Source infoBSDOpen Source infoGPLv2, extended commercial license available
Cloud-based only infoOnly available as a cloud servicenoyesnono
DBaaS offerings (sponsored links) infoDatabase as a Service

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Implementation languageCC
Server operating systemsOS X
Windows
hostedFreeBSD
HP-UX
Linux
NetBSD
OpenBSD
OS X
Solaris
Unix
Windows
AIX
FreeBSD
HP-UX
Linux
OS X
Solaris
Windows
Data schemeyesyesyesyes infoSQL - Standard relational schema
RDF - Quad (S, P, O, G) or Triple (S, P, O)
XML - DTD, XML Schema
DAV - freeform filesystem objects, plus User Defined Types a/k/a Dynamic Extension Type
Typing infopredefined data types such as float or dateyesyesyesyes
XML support infoSome form of processing data in XML format, e.g. support for XML data structures, and/or support for XPath, XQuery or XSLT.yesno infoImport/export of XML data possibleyes infospecific XML-type available, but no XML query functionality.yes
Secondary indexesyesyesyesyes
SQL infoSupport of SQLyes infoclose to SQL 92yesyes infostandard with numerous extensionsyes infoSQL-92, SQL-200x, SQL-3, SQLX
APIs and other access methodsODBC
RESTful HTTP API infoby using 4D Mobile
SOAP webservices
.NET Client API
JDBC
ODBC
OLE DB
ADO.NET
JDBC
native C library
ODBC
streaming API for large objects
ADO.NET
GeoSPARQL
HTTP API
JDBC
Jena RDF API
ODBC
OLE DB
RDF4J API
RESTful HTTP API
Sesame REST HTTP Protocol
SOAP webservices
SPARQL 1.1
WebDAV
XPath
XQuery
XSLT
Supported programming languages4D proprietary IDE
PHP
Java
JavaScript (Node.js)
Perl
PHP
Python
R
Ruby
.Net
C
C++
Delphi
Java infoJDBC
JavaScript (Node.js)
Perl
PHP
Python
Tcl
.Net
C
C#
C++
Java
JavaScript
Perl
PHP
Python
Ruby
Visual Basic
Server-side scripts infoStored proceduresyesPL/SQL, SQL PLuser defined functions inforealized in proprietary language PL/pgSQL or with common languages like Perl, Python, Tcl etc.yes infoVirtuoso PL
Triggersyesyesyesyes
Partitioning methods infoMethods for storing different data on different nodesnoneShardingpartitioning by range, list and (since PostgreSQL 11) by hashyes
Replication methods infoMethods for redundantly storing data on multiple nodesMulti-source replicationyesSource-replica replication infoother methods possible by using 3rd party extensionsChain, star, and bi-directional replication
Multi-source replication
Source-replica replication
MapReduce infoOffers an API for user-defined Map/Reduce methodsnononoyes
Consistency concepts infoMethods to ensure consistency in a distributed systemImmediate ConsistencyImmediate ConsistencyImmediate ConsistencyImmediate Consistency
Foreign keys infoReferential integrityyesyesyesyes
Transaction concepts infoSupport to ensure data integrity after non-atomic manipulations of dataACIDACIDACIDACID
Concurrency infoSupport for concurrent manipulation of datayesyesyesyes
Durability infoSupport for making data persistentyesyesyesyes
In-memory capabilities infoIs there an option to define some or all structures to be held in-memory only.noyesnoyes
User concepts infoAccess controlUsers and groupsfine grained access rights according to SQL-standardfine grained access rights according to SQL-standardFine-grained Attribute-Based Access Control (ABAC) in addition to typical coarse-grained Role-Based Access Control (RBAC) according to SQL-standard. Pluggable authentication with supported standards (LDAP, Active Directory, Kerberos)
More information provided by the system vendor
4D infoformer name: 4th DimensionIBM Db2 warehouse infoformerly named IBM dashDBPostgreSQLVirtuoso
Specific characteristicsVirtuoso is a modern multi-model RDBMS for managing data represented as tabular relations...
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Competitive advantagesPerformance & Scale — as exemplified by DBpedia and the LOD Cloud it spawned, i.e.,...
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Typical application scenariosUsed for — Analytics/BI Conceptual Data Virtualization Enterprise Knowledge Graphs...
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Key customersBroad use across enterprises and governments including — European Union (EU) US Government...
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Market metricsLargest installed-base ​of Multi-Model RDBMS for AI-friendly Knowledge Graphs Platform...
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Licensing and pricing modelsAvailable in both Commercial Enterprise and Open Source (GPL v2) Editions Feature...
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More resources
4D infoformer name: 4th DimensionIBM Db2 warehouse infoformerly named IBM dashDBPostgreSQLVirtuoso
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