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DBMS > 4D vs. H2 vs. Virtuoso

System Properties Comparison 4D vs. H2 vs. Virtuoso

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Editorial information provided by DB-Engines
Name4D infoformer name: 4th Dimension  Xexclude from comparisonH2  Xexclude from comparisonVirtuoso  Xexclude from comparison
DescriptionApplication development environment with integrated database management systemFull-featured RDBMS with a small footprint, either embedded into a Java application or used as a database server.Virtuoso is a multi-model hybrid-RDBMS that supports management of data represented as relational tables and/or property graphs
Primary database modelRelational DBMSRelational DBMSDocument store
Graph DBMS
Native XML DBMS
Relational DBMS
RDF store
Search engine
Secondary database modelsSpatial DBMSSpatial DBMS
DB-Engines Ranking infomeasures the popularity of database management systemsranking trend
Trend Chart
Score2.89
Rank#107  Overall
#56  Relational DBMS
Score9.83
Rank#51  Overall
#31  Relational DBMS
Score6.01
Rank#71  Overall
#11  Document stores
#3  Graph DBMS
#2  Native XML DBMS
#39  Relational DBMS
#2  RDF stores
#9  Search engines
Websitewww.4d.comwww.h2database.comvirtuoso.openlinksw.com
Technical documentationlivedoc.4d.comwww.h2database.com/­html/­main.htmldocs.openlinksw.com/­virtuoso
Developer4D, IncThomas MuellerOpenLink Software
Initial release198420051998
Current releasev18 R5, January 20212.1.210, January 202208.03.3316, March 2020
License infoCommercial or Open SourcecommercialOpen Source infodual-licence (Mozilla public license, Eclipse public license)Open Source infoGPLv2, extended commercial license available
Cloud-based only infoOnly available as a cloud servicenonono
DBaaS offerings (sponsored links) infoDatabase as a Service

Providers of DBaaS offerings, please contact us to be listed.
Implementation languageJavaC
Server operating systemsOS X
Windows
All OS with a Java VMAIX
FreeBSD
HP-UX
Linux
OS X
Solaris
Windows
Data schemeyesyesyes infoSQL - Standard relational schema
RDF - Quad (S, P, O, G) or Triple (S, P, O)
XML - DTD, XML Schema
DAV - freeform filesystem objects, plus User Defined Types a/k/a Dynamic Extension Type
Typing infopredefined data types such as float or dateyesyesyes
XML support infoSome form of processing data in XML format, e.g. support for XML data structures, and/or support for XPath, XQuery or XSLT.yesnoyes
Secondary indexesyesyesyes
SQL infoSupport of SQLyes infoclose to SQL 92yesyes infoSQL-92, SQL-200x, SQL-3, SQLX
APIs and other access methodsODBC
RESTful HTTP API infoby using 4D Mobile
SOAP webservices
JDBC
ODBC
ADO.NET
GeoSPARQL
HTTP API
JDBC
Jena RDF API
ODBC
OLE DB
RDF4J API
RESTful HTTP API
Sesame REST HTTP Protocol
SOAP webservices
SPARQL 1.1
WebDAV
XPath
XQuery
XSLT
Supported programming languages4D proprietary IDE
PHP
Java.Net
C
C#
C++
Java
JavaScript
Perl
PHP
Python
Ruby
Visual Basic
Server-side scripts infoStored proceduresyesJava Stored Procedures and User-Defined Functionsyes infoVirtuoso PL
Triggersyesyesyes
Partitioning methods infoMethods for storing different data on different nodesnonenoneyes
Replication methods infoMethods for redundantly storing data on multiple nodesMulti-source replicationWith clustering: 2 database servers on different computers operate on identical copies of a databaseChain, star, and bi-directional replication
Multi-source replication
Source-replica replication
MapReduce infoOffers an API for user-defined Map/Reduce methodsnonoyes
Consistency concepts infoMethods to ensure consistency in a distributed systemImmediate ConsistencyImmediate ConsistencyImmediate Consistency
Foreign keys infoReferential integrityyesyesyes
Transaction concepts infoSupport to ensure data integrity after non-atomic manipulations of dataACIDACIDACID
Concurrency infoSupport for concurrent manipulation of datayesyes, multi-version concurrency control (MVCC)yes
Durability infoSupport for making data persistentyesyesyes
In-memory capabilities infoIs there an option to define some or all structures to be held in-memory only.noyesyes
User concepts infoAccess controlUsers and groupsfine grained access rights according to SQL-standardFine-grained Attribute-Based Access Control (ABAC) in addition to typical coarse-grained Role-Based Access Control (RBAC) according to SQL-standard. Pluggable authentication with supported standards (LDAP, Active Directory, Kerberos)
More information provided by the system vendor
4D infoformer name: 4th DimensionH2Virtuoso
Specific characteristicsVirtuoso is a modern multi-model RDBMS for managing data represented as tabular relations...
» more
Competitive advantagesPerformance & Scale — as exemplified by DBpedia and the LOD Cloud it spawned, i.e.,...
» more
Typical application scenariosUsed for — Analytics/BI Conceptual Data Virtualization Enterprise Knowledge Graphs...
» more
Key customersBroad use across enterprises and governments including — European Union (EU) US Government...
» more
Market metricsLargest installed-base ​of Multi-Model RDBMS for AI-friendly Knowledge Graphs Platform...
» more
Licensing and pricing modelsAvailable in both Commercial Enterprise and Open Source (GPL v2) Editions Feature...
» more

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4D infoformer name: 4th DimensionH2Virtuoso
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