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DBMS > 4D vs. FoundationDB vs. H2 vs. HyperSQL vs. Oracle

System Properties Comparison 4D vs. FoundationDB vs. H2 vs. HyperSQL vs. Oracle

Editorial information provided by DB-Engines
Name4D infoformer name: 4th Dimension  Xexclude from comparisonFoundationDB  Xexclude from comparisonH2  Xexclude from comparisonHyperSQL infoalso known as HSQLDB  Xexclude from comparisonOracle  Xexclude from comparison
Created as commercial project in 2013, FoundationDB has been acquired by Apple in March 2015 and was withdrawn from the market. As a consequence, the product was removed from the DB-Engines ranking. In April 2018, Apple open-sourced FoundationDB and it therefore reappears in the ranking.
DescriptionApplication development environment with integrated database management systemOrdered key-value store. Core features are complimented by layers.Full-featured RDBMS with a small footprint, either embedded into a Java application or used as a database server.Multithreaded, transactional RDBMS written in Java infoalso known as HSQLDBWidely used RDBMS
Primary database modelRelational DBMSDocument store infosupported via specific layer
Key-value store
Relational DBMS infosupported via specific SQL-layer
Relational DBMSRelational DBMSRelational DBMS
Secondary database modelsSpatial DBMSDocument store
Graph DBMS infowith Oracle Spatial and Graph
RDF store infowith Oracle Spatial and Graph
Spatial DBMS infowith Oracle Spatial and Graph
DB-Engines Ranking infomeasures the popularity of database management systemsranking trend
Trend Chart
Score2.95
Rank#100  Overall
#53  Relational DBMS
Score1.30
Rank#149  Overall
#26  Document stores
#28  Key-value stores
#72  Relational DBMS
Score10.12
Rank#47  Overall
#30  Relational DBMS
Score5.04
Rank#73  Overall
#40  Relational DBMS
Score1281.74
Rank#1  Overall
#1  Relational DBMS
Websitewww.4d.comwww.foundationdb.orgwww.h2database.comhsqldb.orgwww.oracle.com/­database
Technical documentationlivedoc.4d.comapple.github.io/­foundationdbwww.h2database.com/­html/­main.htmlhsqldb.org/­web/­hsqlDocsFrame.htmldocs.oracle.com/­en/­database
Developer4D, IncFoundationDBThomas MuellerOracle
Initial release19842013200520011980
Current releasev18 R5, January 20216.2.28, November 20201.4.200, October 20192.6.1, October 202119c, February 2019
License infoCommercial or Open SourcecommercialOpen Source infoApache 2.0Open Source infodual-licence (Mozilla public license, Eclipse public license)Open Source infobased on BSD licensecommercial inforestricted free version is available
Cloud-based only infoOnly available as a cloud servicenonononono
DBaaS offerings (sponsored links) infoDatabase as a Service

Providers of DBaaS offerings, please contact us to be listed.
Implementation languageC++JavaJavaC and C++
Server operating systemsOS X
Windows
Linux
OS X
Windows
All OS with a Java VMAll OS with a Java VM infoEmbedded (into Java applications) and Client-Server operating modesAIX
HP-UX
Linux
OS X
Solaris
Windows
z/OS
Data schemeyesschema-free infosome layers support schemasyesyesyes infoSchemaless in JSON and XML columns
Typing infopredefined data types such as float or dateyesno infosome layers support typingyesyesyes
XML support infoSome form of processing data in XML format, e.g. support for XML data structures, and/or support for XPath, XQuery or XSLT.yesnonoyes
Secondary indexesyesnoyesyesyes
SQL infoSupport of SQLyes infoclose to SQL 92supported in specific SQL layer onlyyesyesyes infowith proprietary extensions
APIs and other access methodsODBC
RESTful HTTP API infoby using 4D Mobile
SOAP webservices
JDBC
ODBC
HTTP API infoJDBC via HTTP
JDBC
ODBC
JDBC
ODBC
ODP.NET
Oracle Call Interface (OCI)
Supported programming languages4D proprietary IDE
PHP
.Net
C
C++
Go
Java
JavaScript infoNode.js
PHP
Python
Ruby
Swift
JavaAll languages supporting JDBC/ODBC
Java
C
C#
C++
Clojure
Cobol
Delphi
Eiffel
Erlang
Fortran
Groovy
Haskell
Java
JavaScript
Lisp
Objective C
OCaml
Perl
PHP
Python
R
Ruby
Scala
Tcl
Visual Basic
Server-side scripts infoStored proceduresyesin SQL-layer onlyJava Stored Procedures and User-Defined FunctionsJava, SQLPL/SQL infoalso stored procedures in Java possible
Triggersyesnoyesyesyes
Partitioning methods infoMethods for storing different data on different nodesnoneShardingnonenoneSharding, horizontal partitioning
Replication methods infoMethods for redundantly storing data on multiple nodesMulti-source replicationyesWith clustering: 2 database servers on different computers operate on identical copies of a databasenoneMulti-source replication
Source-replica replication
MapReduce infoOffers an API for user-defined Map/Reduce methodsnonononono infocan be realized in PL/SQL
Consistency concepts infoMethods to ensure consistency in a distributed systemImmediate ConsistencyLinearizable consistencyImmediate ConsistencyImmediate ConsistencyImmediate Consistency
Foreign keys infoReferential integrityyesin SQL-layer onlyyesyesyes
Transaction concepts infoSupport to ensure data integrity after non-atomic manipulations of dataACIDACIDACIDACIDACID infoisolation level can be parameterized
Concurrency infoSupport for concurrent manipulation of datayesyesyes, multi-version concurrency control (MVCC)yesyes
Durability infoSupport for making data persistentyesyesyesyesyes
In-memory capabilities infoIs there an option to define some or all structures to be held in-memory only.noyesyesyes infoVersion 12c introduced the new option 'Oracle Database In-Memory'
User concepts infoAccess controlUsers and groupsnofine grained access rights according to SQL-standardfine grained access rights according to SQL-standardfine grained access rights according to SQL-standard

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More resources
4D infoformer name: 4th DimensionFoundationDBH2HyperSQL infoalso known as HSQLDBOracle
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